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Adverse Impact
Occurs when the hiring rate for any minority group is below 80% of the hiring rate for the majority group. When adverse impact is present, the employer has the burden of proving that the employment process is not unfairly discriminatory
2 reasons why an employment procedure can lead to adverse impact
1. Differential validity (i.e. measure valid for one group, but not another), 2. Unfairness
When is adverse impact permitted?
When selection criterion is a "bona fide occupational qualification" (BFOQ), a valid reason for hiring disproportionate numbers
What is BFOQ?
Bona Fide Occupational Qualification (e.g. hiring a male for a play hiring only women to be women's washroom attendants)
What info is collected for a job analysis?
1.) Job description knowledge, 2.) Skills, 3.) Abilities needed; 3.) Measures to evaluate job performance
Diff between job analysis & job evaluation?
JOB ANALYSIS = to clarify requirements of job & JOB EVALUATION = to determine relative worth of jobs
Methods of job analysis
1.) Interview, 2.) Questionnaires, 3.) Direct observation, 4.) Work diaries
Job Analysis
Analysis of a job in great detail to determine the skills, abilities, attitudes, and personal characteristics one needs in order to perform satisfactorily. Used to develop job selection measures, performance appraisals, and job descriptions.
PAQ: Position Analysis Questionnaire
The most frequently used questionnaire in job analysis whereby job is rated in terms of importance of six facets of job behavior.
Steps in training program development
1. Needs analysis 2. Program design 3. Program evaluation
Needs Analysis
A needs analysis, or needs assessment involves identifying the needs of the organization. It usually consists of three steps: 1) organizational analysis, to determine if training is what is required to solve the organization's problem; 2) task analysis, to identify the skills, knowledge, and abilities required for successful job performance; and 3) person analysis, to determine if current employees need training in tasks identified by the task analysis.
Assessment Centers
A place where groups of candidates are given assignments that simulate work behaviors and are observed in a standardized manner. Assessment centers are usually used for selection and promotion of individuals in higher-level positions.
What is the purpose of Performance Evaluation
1.) To determine if employee is entitled to raise or bonus, 2.) To provide feedback about performance, 3.) To help in decision making related to job status
Formative Evaluation
Evaluation of a program as it is in the process of being developed or implemented, in order to determine how the program should be modified. Usually relies on qualitative methods (e.g., case studies, interviews).
Summative Evaluation
Evaluation obtained after a program has been implemented in order to determine the program's effectiveness. Usually relies on quantitative methods (e.g., statistical hypothesis testing).
Program Evaluations
3 dimensions: 1. Formative Evaluations - identify necessary changes while in progress, 2. Summative Evaluations - assess effectiveness of program after complete, 3. Cost-effectiveness Evaluation
Bloom's steps in program evaluation
1.) Specify program's objectives, 2.) Define relevant parameters, 3.) Specify techniques/procedures to achieve goals, 4.) Collect relevant data
Phases of Organizational Development (OD)
1.) Entry, 2.) Contracting, 3.) Diagnosis, 4.) Feedback, 5.) Planning, 6.) Intervention, 7.) Evaluation (Aimed at enhancing individual development and improving the organization’s effectiveness; includes QWL, org surveys, process consultation)
Effectiveness of Organizational Surveys
1.) Increases job satisfaction and employee reports of job conditions, 2.) Helps solve problems and gives employees sense of influence in org
Job-oriented vs. Worker-oriented Information
JOB ORIENTED = focus on TASK requirements of job. WORKER ORIENTED = focus on CHARACTERISTICS required for successful job performance
Behaviorally-Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Method of performance appraisal in which items consist of specific job behaviors (critical incidents) associated with various levels of job performance; for each item, the rater chooses the critical incident that best applies to the person being rated.
Critical Incident Technique
A way of analyzing a job in which employees and supervisors are asked to describe behaviors and abilities that are associated with good and poor job performance.
Critical Incidents
Descriptions of specific job behaviors assoc w/ very good/poor performance; likert rating scales
Behavioral-Observation Scales (BOS) vs. BARS
BOS = rater indicated how often employee performs each critical incident vs. BARS = how well overall
Paired Comparisons vs. Rank-Ordered System
PAIRED COMPARISON = each employee compared w/ every other employee on each job behavior vs. RANK-ORDERED SYSTEM = rater ranks employees from best to worst
Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scales (BARS)
Rating employees on several dimensions of job performance. Each created with critical incidents tied to likert-type scale.
Advantage of BARS
1.) Produces info useful for feedback, 2.) Format and development may improve rating accuracy
Disadvantage of BARS
1.) Time-consuming to construct, 2.) Specific to particular job
What do rater biases limit?
The accuracy of subjective ratings of job performance.
What is the best way to reduce bias?
Adequately train raters, especially focusing on accuracy not errors.
Criterion contamination
When rater's knowledge of a person's performance on a selection instrument (i.e., assessment center) affects how the rater evaluates the person's performance on the job (inflates validity).
3 Types of Rater Biases
1.) Leniency/strictness bias, 2.) Central tendency bias, 3.) Halo effect
Advantage and disadvantage of subjective measures of job performance
ADVANTAGE = Useful for complex, less concrete aspects of job performance. DISADVANTAGE = Rely on judgment of rater, could be unreliable, biased etc.
Forced Distribution System
Rater categorizes employees into a predetermined distribution (e.g. top 10%, next 25%, bottom 10% etc.), based on their performance relative to other employees.
Define Central tendency, Leniency, & Strictness biases
1.) CENTRAL TENDENCY = tendency to assign average ratings, 2.) LENIENCY = positive ratings, or 3.) STRICTNESS = negative ratings to all ratees.
Frame of Reference Training
Designed to help raters recognize multidimensional nature of job performance and ensure they have the same conceptualizations of job performance.
Def: Leniency/Strictness Bias
Raters avoid middle range of rating scale.
Advantage of Personnel Comparison Systems
Reduces the effects of certain rater biases
Def: central tendency bias
Raters use middle of scale
Theories of Leadership (6)
1.) Contingency theory, 2.) Path-goal Theory, 3.) Situational Leadership, 4.) Vroom-Yetton-Jago Normative Model, 5.) Leadership Grid, 6.) Influential Leadership
Theory X And Theory Y Leaders
McGregor. Theory X leaders assume that employees are lazy and all motivation must come externally. They emphasize lower-order needs such as pay as reinforcers. Theory Y leaders assume that, under proper circumstances, work is as natural as play, and people can be self-motivated. They emphasize higher-order needs such as rewarding work and actualization.
Influential Leadership
1.) Charismatic Leaders, 2.) Transformational Leaders (Both recognize need for change - opposite of transactional leaders)
Leader Styles (Lewin, Lipitt and White)
1.) Autocratic-leader = decides, delegates, 2.) Democratic = workers involved in decision-making, 3.) Laissez-Faire = workers decide w/little guidance or help.
Contingency (LPC) Theory: WHO & WHAT
FIEDLER. Leaders’ effectiveness determined by combination of leader style and characteristics of situation. Best leader style depends on "favorableness" of situation for the leader to influence subordinates (Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale)
Least Preferred Coworker (LPC) scale
High LPC leaders describe least preferred co-worker in positive terms, more relationship-oriented, most effective in situations w/moderate influence/control. Low LPC leaders are more task and achievement-oriented, most effective in situations with very high/very low control/influence
Most important implication of Fiedler's contingency theory of leadership?
No single leadership style is most effective in all situations.
Path-goal Theory of Leadership
HOUSE. Workers satisfied and motivation maximized when they perceive leader is helping them achieve their desired goals. Leader helps identify goals, remove obstacles to goals, rewards for goals.
House's 4 leadership styles
1.) Instrumental (directive) Leaders - specific guidelines/rules/procedures, 2.) Supportive Leaders - focus on relationships, 3.) Participative Leaders - include workers in decision-making, 4.) Achievement oriented leaders - set challenging goals, encourage higher levels of performance. Best type depends on characteristics of workers and work environment (like contingency model).
Situational Leadership Model
Hersey and Blanchard. Describe leadership in terms of task and relationship orientation. Optimal style depends on employee JOB MATURITY (i.e., ability/willingness to accept responsibility)
4 Leadership styles based on Situational Leadership Model
Hersey & Blanchard. 1.) Telling Style (high task, low relationship) = if employee is low on ability & willingness for responsibility; 2.) Selling Style (high task, high relationship) = if employee is low on ability, high willingness for responsibility; 3.) Participating Style (low task, high relationship) = if employee is high ability, low willingness for responsibility; 4.) Delegating Style (low task, low relationship) = if employee’s ability and willingness both high.
Vroom & Yetton's Normative Model of Leadership
Normative/Contingency Model. 5 leadership styles in terms of including employee in decision-making. “Decision Tree" to determine which decision-making style fits a situation
Vroom and Yetton's five leadership styles
1.) AI (autocratic): no consult w/emp, make decisions on own, 2.) AII: obtain info from emp, make final decision on own, 3.) CI (consultative): discuss problems w/emp individually, make final decision on own, 4.) CII: discuss problems w/emp as group, make final decision on own, 5.) GII: discuss problems w/emp as group, group decision
Decisive Decision-making Style
Satisficing (minimal info or “good enough” solutions), Unifocus. Business, political leaders. Inflexible, short sighted.
Flexible Decision-making Style
Satisficing (minimal info or “good enough” solutions), Multi-focus. Best in quick changing environment.
Hierarchic Decision-making Style
Maximizing and uni-focus. Lots of info, best solution, detailed plan. Effective in good dec, but often rigid and over-controlling
Integrative Decision-making Style
Maximizing, multifocus. Pursue several courses simultaneously. Value creativity, best in groups.
Systemic Decision-making Style
More complex. Combine hierarchic and integrative styles. Maximizing, but both uni/multi focused.
Transformational vs. Transactional Leaders
Transformational leaders focus on long-term change - they are able to create a vision of change and accomplish that change by empowering employees, raising their consciousness, and successfully guiding them through organizational change. Transactional leaders, by contrast, focus more on day-to-day work transactions, for example, administrative tasks such as decision-making, task assignment, and performance evaluation. Transactional leaders focus on conforming to rules and regulations and maintaining the status quo.
Leadership Grid
Blake & McCanse. Attitudes towards production and people grid training. Designed to develop leaders with high concern for both.
Productivity highest with which type of V & Y leader?
Autocratic, esp. when work is routine
Satisfaction highest with which type of V & Y leader?
Democratic. Also affects creativity, positive relationship with leader, and continued work in absence of leader.
Leader styles categorized into what two basic dimensions?
1. Consideration-person-oriented, focus on HR aspects of supervision, 2. Initiating-structure-task-oriented, focus on goals, following rules, clarifying roles.
Personality traits and effective leaders
No single trait or set of traits distinguishes leaders/non-leaders. Moderated by several factors including characteristics of employee, task, and nature of work environment.
Which more likely to lead to an effective org, theory X or Y?
Theory Y
Gender and leadership style
Most research suggests no difference. Tendency for women to be more concerned w/relationships and task accomplishment. Women more participatory leadership style vs. men's autocratic or directive.
Base Rate
In selection procedures, the rate of job-performance success employees would show if they were hired without the use of a given selection procedure.
Selection of personnel involves what?
Determining if applicants have the KSAPs for job: Knowledge, Skills, Ability, Personal characteristics required by job
Commonly used selection techniques, or predictors of job performance
1. cognitive ability tests 2. job knowledge tests 3. work samples 4. interviews, bio inventories 5. assessment centers 6. personality & interest tests
Selection Ratio
The ratio of the number of job openings to the number of candidates. For example, if there are 10 positions available and 50 people apply, the selection ratio is 10 out of 50, or .20. A low selection ratio means that a job selection predictor will be more useful.
In-Basket Test
Example of simulation exercise (work sample). See how participant would respond to kind of tasks he/she would actually encounter on job.
Interview usefulness increased when:
1.) Structured and based on thorough job analysis. 2.) Panel interviews, 3.) Past oriented interviews, focus on past work behaviors and experiences vs. how respond to situation in future.
Utility Analysis
Assesses cost effectiveness of selection procedure
Work Samples
One type of job predictor. Candidates are given work that is similar to the actual job and their performance is observed and/or rated in a standardized manner. Work samples are best for predicting specific job behaviors. In selecting individuals for very complex jobs, work samples have limited validity.
Aptitude vs. Achievement Tests
Aptitude are potential for learning whereas achievement is how much a person has already learned.
Ability Test
Refers to both achievement and aptitude tests (not absolute distinctions). "capacity to perform a task"
Personality Tests
Better predictors of contextual performance vs. task performance. Conscientiousness accurate predictor of job performance across settings. Tests measure specific traits that are more accurate predictors than global.
Differential Validity
When a selection procedure is a valid predictor of job performance for one group and less valid for another.
When one group consistently scores lower than another group on a selection test, yet both perform equally well on the job.
Another way of determining incremental validity
Taylor-Russell tables. When test’s validity coefficient (large), base rate (moderate), and selection rate (low) (max incremental validity)
-when predictors (selection tests) are highly correlated. Not useful and redundant info
multiple hurdle
-like multiple cutoff but each test given in order and if minimum not met on one test the selection process ends -save time and money
incremental validity
-the usefulness of a selection test in terms of how accurately it selects a good worker -incremental validity = positive hit rate - base rate
Term refers to standardized information questionnaires where each item has a demonstrated value in predicting future job performance. Often, items are weighted so that those with greater predictive power are given more emphasis.
Interest Inventories
Assessments of an individual's interests, used mostly in career counseling, by comparing the client's responses to those of people functioning, satisfied, and successful in various occupations. Have little validity for predicting occupational success, but do predict job satisfaction.
cognitive ability tests
-most valid predictor of job performance (.41 ave, .53 on perf ratings, .75 on work sample)
-at best moderately accurate in predicting job performance, .14-.23
advantage of biodata?
-useful for predicting turnover, including members of different racial groups
combining predictors
-preferred because provide more info -should have high correlation with the criterion but low correlation with other predictors
multiple regression
-determines score on criterion based on scores of 2+ predictors -compensatory techniques (can make up for poor scores on other tests)
multiple cutoff
-applicants must score above a minimum on each predictor to be hired -noncompensatory -useful when minimal level of competence on multiple domains necessary
research on peer ratings of job performance show what?
-that they are valid predictors of job perf, particularly in predicting supervisor ratings, promotions, and training success
Quality Circles (QC)
A technique developed in Japan where small work groups meet regularly to discuss how the work can be improved.
stages of group development
forming storming norming performing adjourning
types of group tasks (4)
1.) Additive - individual contributions added together, 2.) Compensatory Task - inputs averaged together, 3.) Disjunctive Task - group selects one solution, 4.) Conjunctive Task - group's overall performance limited by worst-performing member
Social Loafing
individual exerts less effort in group than he would on own
2 conditions that lead to bad groups decision making
1.) Groupthink - directive, high stress, pressure to conform... desire for cohesiveness overrides critical thinking, 2.) Group Polarization - groups make more extreme decisions than individual members would have made alone, e.g. risky shift phenomenon
Nominal group technique (NGT) re: group decision-making
Group members privately write down solution, each is discussed, then ranked.
Delphi technique re: group decision-making
Anonymous solutions are pooled together, summarized, then each participant votes on decision
Quality of work life programs re: organizational development intervention
Emphasizes employee empowerment, "quality circles" - small group brainstorms problems & present to management. QC improve attitude, but not productivity
Self-managed work teams re: organizational development intervention
Similar to quality circles, but these teams make decisions, instead of management. Use “team-think” (diff from group think in that divergent views are encouraged)
Career Maturity
A key concept in Super's theory. Career maturity results when a person masters the tasks at his or her developmental stage. The stages are: Growth (0-15 years); Exploration (15-24 yrs); Establishment (25-44 yrs); Maintenance (45-64); Decline (65+ yrs).
Theories of Career Choice
Super - self-concept; Roe - personality & basic needs; Holland - personality types
Life Career Rainbow
Super's Life Career Rainbow refers to nine major roles that individuals adopt throughout their career development (e.g. student, parent, spouse, worker).
Archway of Career Determinants
Super: It depicts personal and environmental factors that combine to determine a person's career path
Hollands' Personality and Environment Typology
All behaviors are a function of personality and social environment, including career choice –RIASEC
Self-concept and Career
Person's abilities, interests, values, personality traits etc. Most people chose career consistent with self concept
Holland's Occupational Types
Holland's occupational types are: Realistic, Investigative, Artistic, Social, Enterprising, and Conventional (RIASEC); they describe basic occupational interests. Job satisfaction is believed to be related to the degree of congruence between the person's type and the occupational environment. The Strong Interest Inventory and a few other tests measure the degree to which a person resembles each of these types.
Holland's Realistic type
active, manipulation of machinery or tools, hands-on work
Holland's Investigative type
analytical, curious, methodical, precise -CSI
Holland's Artistic Realistic type
expressive, nonconforming, original, introspective
Holland's Social type
working w/others, avoids systematic activities like tools/machinery
Holland's Enterprising type
manipulating others to attain org goals or economic gain
Holland's Conventional type
manipulation of data, filing records, reproducing materials -secretary
Roe's Fields and Levels Theory
Links children's experiences w/parents to later occupational choice and level they achieve within that occupation. Parent orientations: overprotective, avoidant, acceptant -occupational fields (8) and levels (6)
safety and accidents in workplace
-human error account for 50-80% -neg corr with age -not clear, specific set of personality traits assoc with accident prone -training most effective way to improve safety, if focus both on safe behavior and attitudes
difference between job rotation & cross-training
Job rotation - trainees learn several jobs (e.g. a manager) Cross-training - workers trained to perform diff tasks
vestibule training
-training in a mock work environ -prevents slow-downs of OJT, offers repeated practice & special coaching
Need For Achievement (nACH)
According to McClelland, individuals with high nAch seek moderate challenges, like to work independently, seek recognition, and appreciate appropriate feedback. Also need for power (nPOW; effective managers high) & need for affiliation (nAFF)
Maslow's Need Hierarchy
A theory of motivation positing increased progression of needs which must be met and, if met, motivate the person to work toward satisfaction of the next higher level. The research findings have not supported this. Needs include: 1. physiological needs (food/H20) 2. safety needs, 3. social needs, 4. esteem needs, 5. self-actualization needs
equity theory
-ppl assess inputs (contributions) and outcomes (rewards), compare ratio to other workers -emp motivated to have equity w/other worker ratios -perceived underpayment greater impact in work perf than overpayment
limitations of objective measures of job performance
-do not measure motivation or cooperation -limited by situational factors -not useful with complex jobs
Intrinsic Motivation
Motivation based on internal, intrinsic needs, such as the desire to do well or the satisfaction of having completed a job. Deci's theory of intrinsic motivation proposes that providing external reinforcement for a task that is intrinsically rewarding may
goal-setting theory re: motivation
Locke. Employees motivated to achieve goals if they've consciously accepted them, and are therefore committed. Management of Objectives (MBO) is based on this theory
scientific management
-Taylor, founder -assumptions: job design could improve perf, motivation of workers affects perf, and workers are motivated by economic incentives, need constant supervision
QWL: Quality of Work Life interventions
premise: org effectiveness will increase as emp satisfaction, motivation, and commitment increase. -Involves job restructuring so more interesting, challenging, and more involvement in decision making
work performance
P=f{AxM} work perf is a function of ability and motivation, research suggests ability more important than motivation in explaining differences in job performance
Locke's goal setting theory
-goals have 2 purposes: motivation and direct behavior -critical: conscious acceptance/commitment to goals -attainment max when goals specific and mod difficult, and feedback toward ach provided -worker participation in goal setting helpful but not crucial in accepting goals (ex. Management by Objective (MBO))
theory: scientific management
Taylor (1911) employees motivated by economic self-interest, differential piece-rate system
theory: classical organization
Weber (1947) bureaucracy hierarchy division of labor & delegation of authority
theory: human relations movement
Mayo (1927-1932) worker needs, motives & relationships Hawthorne Effect - originally looking at effects of physical conditions on job performance - found productivity inc due to novelty of experiment, workers' interest, special attention as research subjects, smaller group
need-hierarchy theory re: motivation
Maslow 5 basic instinctual needs arranged in a hierarchy - once a need has been satisfied, it's no longer a motivator employers should fit jobs/rewards with each employee's needs. money not important
equity theory re: motivation
Adams social comparison of input/outcome ratios if diff from others, can experience a "state of inequity"
expectancy (VIE) theory re: motivation
Porter & Lawler; Vroom motivation is a function of: valence instrumentality expectancy valence
expectancy theory
-motivation is function of: 1. belief effort = successful perf (expectancy) 2. successful perf = outcomes (instrumentality) 3. desirability of outcomes (valence)
incentive theory
-reinforcement/operant cond theory -focus in incentives which mot productivity in emp -external, material rewards most flexible
job satisfaction & personal char
-positively correlated with age, level in org -non-whites more likely to express dissat -sat/dissat stable over time (dispositional not work related)
job satisfaction & job char
-Relationship between pay and job satisfaction is complex -Positively correlated, but may include other factors like autonomy -Perception of pay fairness more important than actual amt (fairness=related to performance and comparable worth) -skill utilization strongest predictor of job success
consequences of job satisfaction
-moderately and negatively related to absenteeism and turnover -highest w/turnover at -.40, moderated by skill level (poor perf)
relationship between job satisfaction and performance
-positive but weak (.14) -moderated by pay (pay connected then pos corr, if not than neg corr)
relationship between job satisfaction and physical/mental health
-related to both -work satisfaction better predictor of longevity than physical health or tobacco -job dissatisfaction number negative physical & mental health correlates
ERG theory re: motivation
Alderfer reduced Malow's 5 basic needs to 3: 1.) existence, 2.) relatedness, 3.) growth. Can be motivated by more than 1 need at a time.
Motivation-Hygiene Theory (or Two-Factor Theory)
Herzberg. A theory of motivation stating that we can be dissatisfied with a job because it doesn't meet our basic needs. But even if these needs are met and we aren't dissatisfied, we aren't necessarily satisfied either. To be satisfied (as opposed to merely not dissatisfied), higher order needs such as those for recognition and responsibility must be met.
Two-factor theory re: motivation
Herzberg. Theory of motivation & satisfaction: 1.) Lower-level Needs (e.g. fulfilled by hygiene, pay, job security, benefits); High-level Needs (e.g. fulfilled by "motivator factors" incl advancement, recognition, achievement)
def: job enrichment
Herzberg. Redesigning job to combine several jobs into one to give more meaning, responsibility, control
research on job enrichment
-inceased job sat and decreased absenteeism -increase quality vs. quantity of work perf -more pos effects on younger, well-educ, and high nACH workers
Goal Setting
A theory of motivation that uses people's acceptance of work goals as a motivator. Clear, accepted, explicit, and moderately difficult goals are more motivating than vague and unchallenging goals. The theory underlies the Management By Objectives (MBO) method of leadership.
Research on Job Characteristics Model
-imp in mot, sat, absenteeism & turnover -work quality less affected -well workers high in growth need strength
Management By Objectives (MBO)
A goal-setting procedure in which the manager and employee set and agree on a specific and measurable series of goals which are monitored and renegotiated as contingencies occur.
A work schedule that allows people to set their own beginning and ending times within a given range. Flextime has resulted in increased job satisfaction; research investigating its effect on job productivity has yielded mixed results.
primary cause of turnover
disillusionment with one's work
theories of organizational effectiveness
scientific management classical organization theory human relations movement theory X versus theory Y international perspective & theory Z
hawthorne effect
- originally looking at effects of physical conditions on job performance - found productivity inc due to: novelty of experiment workers' interest special attention as research subjects smaller working groups
Job Enlargement
Redesigning the job so that it involves more tasks, without an increase in the worker's autonomy and responsibility.
Job Enrichment
Redesigning work to provide more independence of actions and/or a larger scope of work responsibility. An attempt to meet the hypothesized needs of self-esteem and self-actualization.
Contrast effect
Tendency to give ratings while comparing to other ratees
Noise, Effect Of
Erratic, intermittent, unexpected, and/or extremely loud noises can decrease attention and performance; by contrast, we tend to habituate to consistent low-level noise. Complex mental or motor operations are adversely affected by noise. Automatic and well-learned tasks are not as adversely affected. Noise has its most adverse effects when it is perceived as uncontrollable.
diff between job enrichment & job enlargement
job enrichment - inc job's vertical job loading by giving more higher-level tasks; job enlargement - inc job's horixonal loading by inc number & variety of tasks
Process Consultation
Process consultation focuses on human interactions and how they affect the functioning of the larger organization. Typical targets of process consultation include communication processes, decision-making, and conflict resolution.
work (job) samples
-measure a sample of work beh in standardized, job-like conditions -more valid for motor skills than verbal skills -acceptable to applicants and less likely to unfairly discriminate minorities
realistic job preview
-purpose to prevent unrealistic expectations to reduce turnover -includes work samples, written description of job, interviews, group discussions w/current emp.
interview reliability and validity limited by what factors?
-unfavorable info carries more weight than favorable -decisions occur too early in interview -judgments based on superficial chara
Systems Approach
Considers the whole organization as a functional system. This approach is the most modern view of the work environment and focuses attention on the individual's response to the various presses and needs of the work environment.
The Big Five
Core personality traits which have been identified by factor analysis. They are: extraversion, agreeableness, openness, emotional stability (sometimes referred to as it''s opposite "neuroticism") and conscientiousness. Conscientiousness, being the only trait found to predict job performance and training success.
disadv of biographical info forms
-specific to job and org for which devised -lack "face validity" although correlated w/job perf
Theme interference
Theme interference occurs when a worker displaces past or present personal problems onto a situation at work. It is thus, analogous to transferance in psychotherapy.
def: idiosyncracy credits
these are accumulated through conforming to group norms, contributing, being a group leader allows a person to occasionally deviate from group norms
3 types of justice re: fairness of organizational decisions
1.) Distributive Justice - fairness of outcomes of decision, 2.) Procedural Justice - fairness of way in which decision was made, 3.) Interactional Justice - how people feel about the way they've been treated
programmed instruction
-not effective for teaching complex skills, but useful for teaching content knowledge, rote memorization -adv: allows trainees to progress at own pace
Tiedeman & O'Hare's Decision Making Model
-based on Erikson's psychosocial theory of ego identity
-career-rel correlates to Erikson's 8 psychosocial crisis resolutions
Miller-Tiedeman and Tiedeman's concepts of personal vs. common reality
Personal authoritative reality: what an individual feels is right for self
Common reality: what "they" say should do, i.e. need good educ for good job
Weber's bureaucracy
-Weber found bureaucratic structure (formal rules/regs, hierarchial) maximizes org effectiveness -today considered rigid, inefficient, nd lowers job sat
human relations approach
assumes worker perf affected primarily by social factors, including attitudes toward supervisors, coworkers, and informal group norms
Hawhorne effect
improvement in worker's performance resulting from increased attention, not experimental variables themselves
TQM characteristics
-"flattening" of hierarchy -cooperation and fairness in emp tx -cross-training of workers -"bigger picture" knowledge of work product -autonomy and empowerment of workers -task significance: contact w/customers -feedback from work process not just management
empirical-rational change strategy
-get all relevant info about situation and act in accord w/self-interest
normative-reeducative change strategy
focus on changing attitudes, values, rel in order to bring about change -assume social norms underlie patterns of beh
power-coercive change strategy
involve using rewards, punishments or legitimate auth to coerce emp to comply with change
best way to address employee resistance to change?
-allow emp to participate in decisions about change
centralized communication network
-all comm pass thru one person, one position (wheel and chain) -more efficient w/simple tasks -sat for person who controls info
decentralized communication network
-info flows freely between ind -best when tasks are complex and cooperation nec for task -result more ind sat
individual decision-making models
rational-economic administrative
rational-economic decision-making
-goal find optimal sol -search all possible sol, weigh alt, make decision w/greatest benefit to org -maximizing -often not practical due to time and info constraints
administrative decision-making
-eval sol as available and select first that is acceptable -satisficing
Driver, Brousseau, & Hunsaker five basic decision-making styles
-decisive, flexible, hierarchic, integrative, systemic
loss aversion
-tendency to be more influenced by potential losses than gains when making decisions -central concept in Kahneman and Tversky's Prospect theory
Kahneman and Tversky's Prospect Theory
-ppl not adverse to risk, but rather adverse to loss, ex. gamblers take higher risks following loss in attempts to avoid realizing actual loss
comparable worth
men and women should get equal pay for performing jobs that have equivalent worth -use job evaluations to determine value of job in wages
Alderfer's ERG theory
similar to Maslow's hierarchy 3 needs: existence, relatedness, growth, not hierarchical
Job Characteristics Model
1. skill variety 2. task identity 3. task significance 4. autonomy 5. feedback
outcome justice vs. procedural justice
-outcome justice: fairness of outcomes (raises), focus of equity theory -procedural justice: fairness of procedures to det outcomes (biases, =tx of emp etc.)
organizational commitment
-extent emp identifies w/org and willing to help achieve org goals -greatest w/opp for growth and resp -mod to strong neg corr w/absenteeism and turnover -may increase resistance to change
engineering psychology
concerned with "fit" between workers and work proced, environ, equipment
person-machine systems
-both work tog to accomplish job -Humans: flexible, inductive reasoning -Machines: reliable, consistent. deductive reasoning
compressed work week (CWW)
-productivity typ NOT affected (but varies by job) -absenteeism declines, job sat increases, esp younger/lower-level emp -women less favorable bc spend day off doing chores vs. leisure
-emp determine own daily schedule as long as work required hours and during core hours -increases sat, job/environ attitudes, and decreases absenteeism & tardiness -not clear effects on productivity
shift work
-less productive on night shift, more errors and accidents -rotating shift worse and assoc with lower productivity, higher accidents, and physical/mental health prob -younger workers adapt better
-64% report jobs invol stress -major source: no control over work or work environment -Type A more prone to work stress
job burnout
-response to chronic stress -phy/emot exhaustion, redused personal accomplishment, think impersonal terms -higher among women, single/div emp, low opp 4 promotion, people-oriented professions
work-family conflict
-women experience more conflict/stress than men -work-rel expectations & conflict better predictor of work-family conflict for men than women (family exp/conf more predictive)
effectiveness of safety programs
-positive themes more effective vs. scare tactics -posters more effective if specific -mgmt commitment is key to success -incentives helpful, combined w/specific info and mgmt commitment

Deck Info