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Microbiology - Parasites 2


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trematode spp?
clonorchis sinensis
paragonimus westermani
lung fluke?
paragonimus westermani
liver fluke?
clonorchis sinensis
blood and bladder flukes?
schistosoma (mansoni; haematobium)
clonorchis sinensis causes...
inflam of biliary tract (cholangitis), w/predisp to cholangiocarcinoma
clonorchis sinensis vector? where?
undercooked fish; endemic in asia
clonorchis sinensis tx?
paragonimus westermani vector?
ingest cysts in undercooked crabs or crayfish
paragonimus westermani ds?
inflam of lung: lung abscess, chronic bronchitis, hemoptysis
paragonimus westermani tx?
schistosoma host?
transmission of schistosoma?
contact with contam water (they penetrate skin)
S. mansoni causes...
portal HTN, periportal fibrosis, granulomas, inflam spleen & liver
S. haematobium lodges in?
S haematobium causes...
hematuria, linked to bladder cancer
tx schistosomiasis w?
dx trematode ds w?
eggs in stool (or serology, w schisto)
cestode spp? (tapeworms)
taenia solium (& saginata)
echinococcus granulosus
diphyllobothrium latum
pork tapeworm?
taenia solium
beef tapeworm?
taenia saginata
canine tapeworm?
echinococcus granulosus
fish tapeworm?
diphyllobothrium latum
how do you get cysticerosis?
ingest encysted form of t solium
most prominent manifestations fo cysticerosis?
mass lesions in brain from cysts-> seizures, meningoencephalitis, obstructive hydrocephaly
what happens when t solium organisms die/degenerate?
causes granulomatous rxn, w/calcification
dx cysticerosis?
biopsy subcut nodules, or brain; serology; CT
tx for taenia?
praziquantel, niclosamide, albendazole (+/- steroids)
transmiss of echinococcus granulosus?
ingest eggs in dog feces
where are echinococcus granulosus cysts most often located?
liver (60%)
tx for echinococcus granulosus?
surg to drain cysts, albendazole
what is the risk in surgical excision of echinococcus granulosus cysts?
cause anaphylaxis if antigens are released from cysts
transmiss of diphyllobothrium latum? endemic in?
freshwater fish; great lakes, scandinavia
characteristic findings in infection w/ diphyllobothrium latum?
diar, B12 deficiency w/megaloblastic anemia
dx diphyllobothrium latum?
eggs or proglottids in feces
tx diphyllobothrium latum?
niclosamide or praziquantel
nematode spp?
ancyclostoma duodenale
ascaris lumbricoides
dracunculus medinensis
enterobius vermicularis
loa loa
necator americanus
onchocerca volvulus
strongyloides stercoralis
toxocara canis
trichinella spriralis
trichuris trichiura
wuchereria bancrofti
intestinal nematodes?
ascaris, tricuris, ancyclostoma, necator, enterobius, strongyloides, trichinella
tissue nematodes?
wuchereria, oncocerca, toxocara, loa loa, dracunculus
strongyloides stercoralis
giant roundworm?
ascaris lumbricoides
enterobius vermicularis
ancyclostoma duodenale (old world), necator americanus (new world)
trichuris trichiura
what worm is known for autoinfection?
strongyloides stercoralis
ds of ascaris lumbricoides?
intest infection (may have bowel/biliary obstruction)
pneumonia w/eosinophilia (during lung stage)
ascaris lumbricoides tx?
mebendezole or pyrantel pamoate
which worm infects by penetrating feet?
hookworm (ancyclostoma duodenale, necator americanus)
what condition is hookworm known to cause?
microcytic anemia
hookworm dx?
eggs in stool
hookworm tx?
mebendezole or pyrantel pamoate
what worm is dx'd by the scotch tape test?
enterobius vermicularis
ds/sx caused by enterobius vermicularis?
intestinal infection, anal pruritis
tramsission of enterobius vermicularis?
ingest eggs (self infection by scratching butt)
tx for enterobius vermicularis?
mebendezole or pyrantel pamoate
immunocompromised pts are especially at risk for disseminated infection by what worm?
strongyloides stercoralis
transmission of strongyloides stercoralis?
larvae in soil penetrate skin; also by autoinfection
common sx w/strongyloides infection?
pruritis, urticaria; diar; pneumonitis w/eos
tx for strongyloides stercoralis?
ivermectin or thiabendazole
what does trichuris trichiura cause?
intestinal ds, may cause rectal prolapse in kids
tx for trichuris trichiura
mebendezole, albendezole, pyrantel pamoate
what worm is known to cause periorbital edema?
trichinella spiralis
characteristics of trichinosis?
inflammed musc, musc pain (larvae deposit in skel musc)
transmiss of trichinella spiralis?
undercooked meat (usu pork)
tx for trichinella spiralis?
thiabendezole or mebendezole
tramsmiss of dracunculus medinesis?
in drinking water
sx caused by dracunculus medinesis?
skin inflammation and ulceration
tx of dracunculus medinesis?
vector for loa loa?
deer fly
where might you see loa loa crawling?
sx from loa loa infection?
swelling in skin, conjunctiva
tx for loa loa
what worm causes elephantiasis?
wuchereria bancrofti
transmiss of wuchereria bancrofti?
mosquito (larvae enter bite wound)
dx of filariasis by wuchereria?
microfilariae in blood or lymph; antigen test
tx for wuchereria bancrofti?
diethylcarbamazine (and maybe corticosteroids)
what worm causes river blindness?
onchocerca volvulus
transmiss of onchocerca volvulus?
black fly (resides near streams and rivers)
tx for onchocerca?
ivermectin or diethylcarbamazine
what worm causes visceral larva migrans?
toxocara canis
transmiss of toxocara canis?
ingestion of eggs in feces of dogs
sx caused by larva migrans?
hemor, nec of liver, lung, retina, brain etc; granulomas (eos)
tx for toxocara canis?
brain cysts, seizures = ?
taenia solium
liver cysts = ?
echinococcus granulosus
B12 deficiency = ?
diphyllobothrium latum
biliary tract ds = ?
clonorchis sinesis
hemoptysis = ?
paragonimus westermani
portal HTN = ?
schistosoma mansoni
hematuria, bladder cancer = ?
schistosoma haematobium
microcytic anemia = ?
ancyclostoma, necator
perianal pruritis = ?
what does giardia cause?
foul smelling diar, flatulence, bloating (often in hikers, kids <5yo)
transmiss of giardia lamblia?
cysts in water
pathogenesis of giardia lamblia?
trophozoites attach to intest wall, impair absorption
giardia dx?
trophozoites or cysts in stool
giardia tx?
what 2 organisms are responsible for over 90% of intestinal parasitic infections diagnosed in the US?
giardia and cryptosporidium
what type of diarrhea does cryptosporidium cause?
cholera-like (watery, ~travelers diar), may have vomit, low grade fever, dehyd
dx of cryptosporidium?
(modified) acid fast stain
tx for cryptosporidium?
oral rehydration therapy (supportive)
AIDS pts are at increased risk for diarrheal ds caused by which intestinal protozoa?
cryptosporidium (more so in the developing world, if CD4<200)
common parasitic causes of liver abscesses?
entamoeba histolytica (protozoa), echinococcus granulosus (cestode)
which type of liver abscess is faster growing?
E histolytica
what type of intestinal ds/sx does Entamoeba histolytica cause?
Amebiasis -> bloody diarrhea (dysentery); can disseminate
what is a possible complication of E histolytica liver abscess? what is a sign that this has occured?
hepatopulmonary fistula; bile stained sputum
Entamoeba histolytica dx?
cysts in stool (4 or less nuclei), or serology
tx for entamoeba histolytica?
metronidazole, and iodoguinol (eliminates cysts)

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