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Micro Review


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Name the proteins in HPV, and their functions
E1, E2, E6, E7
E1 and E2 complex to initiate repliction
E6: degrades p53
E7: binds to Rb, which releases E2F --> cellular replication
What does E7 bind to?
Rb and inactivates it --> release of E2F --> replication
transcriptional activator of viral genome
moves gag, pol, and env out of the nucleus
helps with core packing
MHC downregulation, CD4 downregulation
cell cycle arrest
helps in infecting other cells --> nuclear translocation of pre-integration complex
helps virus release
Helps with HIV integration into genome
AIDS eye complication
CMV retinitis
4 targets of HIV drug
viral entry
reverse transcription
proteolytic maturation
reverse transcriptase inhibitors
nucleoside analogs (AZT, 3TC)
nonnucleoside inhibitors (Nevirapine)
Protease inhibitors (HIV)(
all bind to same site on viral protease
HIV malignancies
1. Kaposi Sarcoma
2. B cell lymphoma (Burkett's lymphoma from EBV)
●superficial skin infection vesicles and pustules weeping, crusting lesions on face.
●Organisms: S. pyogenes > S. aureus
●Tx topical management, penicillin
● epidermal and dermal, involving deeper tissues, lymphedema.
● Dx - often facial in malar distribution, erythema, warmth, edema - advances rapidly
● Tx penicillin
● localized pyogenic infection at the base of hair follicles
● S. aureus, pseudomonas
● infection of skin and subcutaneous tissues
● Organisms: Group A strep commonly, S. Aureus if open wound
● accompanied by systemic sx's of chills, fever, tachycardia
● Tx nafacillin or oxacillin
● abscess of the skin when several follicular infections coalesce
● Organisms: commonly S. aureus
● Tx drainage, topical Abx, oral if severe
●caused by implantation of bacteria through breaks in the skin
●Organisms: often S. Aureus, some anaerobes
●Sx: fluctuant soft tissue swelling, surrounded by erythema
●Tx incision, drainage, and gauze packing. Abx only of immunocompromised or in signs of systemic infections.
●tissue necrosis, secondary to lack of circulation
- skin becomes black and wrinkled (dry)
- if bacterial superinfection occurs, tissue oozes fluid (wet)
-Gas gangrene, wound contaminated with gas producing anaerobes, usually C. perfringens
● Tx: immediate wound debridement and Abx
what is a left shift?
premature release of not yet fully mature neutrophils is called a myeloid "left shift".
immune complex deposition
HBV: antibody and HBsAg --> arthritis, skin and kidney damage
joints affected in bacterial, mycobacterial,m and viral infection, respectively
Knee, knee, hand (Rubella)
HBV drug
pathology of measles and rubella infection
respiratory droplets --> attachment via HA binding to CD46 --> F protein helps fusion --> virus is endocytosed --> replication --> epithelial cell lysis --> infection of upper respiratory tract --> primary viremia --> infects and replications in reticuloendothelial cells --> secondary viremia --> now skin involvement
tropical spastic paraparesis
HTLV-1, HTLV-2. leads to MS like disease, but with cranial nerve sparing.
Most common Osteomylitis
S. aureus
9 year old child with sickle cell anemia and osteomyelitis

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