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Introduction to Music Final Exam


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Ancient Greek Mathematician, worked in whole numbers, theory of tuning scales based on whole number divisions of a vibrating string, get perfect octaves, fifths, etc. basis of music theory
the distance between two pitches
A ascending progression of pitches used to get from one note the note vibrating twice as fast as it (the note one higher), major and minor scales
Plato/Musical Ethos
said that one should make music that reflected the morals and values of a state (making music with an industrious tone makes people industrious)-asserting that music affects how we think
a note/tune you can sing
a succession of pitches put together to make a tune
two notes played at the same time
relative durations of musical sounds
regular groupings of strong and weak pulses (i.e. Waltz)
The relative speed with which a piece advances (Adagio, Andante, Allegro)
relative loudness or softness of music (Forte, Piano, crescendo, decrescendo)
the manner in which a sound is initiated or released (legato, staccato)
The architectural blueprint for a piece of music, tells you how all of the sections relate to one another/which events should happen after the other
Tone color, characteristic sound made by each particular instrument, different sounds can be produced on the same instrument
the number of/types of instrumental forces in the music and their relationship to one another. (Polyphony, monophony, etc)
A succession of notes one after the other, melody with no harmony
Harmony that results from a melody with choral support, playing a chunk of chords at one time while also playing the melody (i.e. singing happy birthday with chords)
Harmony that results from the coincidence of two or more melodies
solo voice or instrument performs line and the someone else answers
A group of performers makes a musical statement and stops and then another group answers
Pope Gregory - Date!
600, Gregorian chants recorded under orders of _______ in a book called the Liber Usualis which includes 5 prayers to be sung at the mass ordinary
Mass Ordinary
5 prayers, Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, Agnus Dei
Medieval Period
(when does it end?)

inserting original notes into an existing melody, expanding the expression of something that already exists

original, devotional latin text set to an original melody
Liturgical Drama (Play of Daniel)

large extension of the dialogue chant. Dramatic presentation yet no costumes. People participated to solidify their own religious beliefs. People watched in order to learn the story not for entertainment. Monks sang the parts.
Hildegard Von Bingen

1100, given to the church by family, condemned to a small cell. taught how to read/play music. She received fully formed pieces from god. Most prolific composer of her time. Her music was idiosyncratic because no one was overseeing her composition. Her music was often not in reference to god. A poet, had her own abbey.

an elaboration of chant through the addition of poliphonic lines.
Strict Simple

Monophonic melody, vox principalis in the lower voice and vox originalis in the upper voice
Cantus Firmus/Vox Principalis

A preexisting melody used as the basis of a new composition
Vox Originalis

newly composed part in organum, the duplum, 1/5th apart from the vox principalis
Notre Dame School

1200, school of polyphony in Paris

1200, wrote the Magnus Liber Organi (The great book of organum) - first composer of polyphonic organum, Notre Dame School

1200, Notre Dame School, wrote polyphonic organum, created the quadruplum - the most complex harmony ever

On top line you have long melisma for each note, on the bottom level you have one note whereas on top many notes
discant style

range of notes speeds up for the tenor or begins singing more notes

sang the vox principalis
duplum, triplum, quadruplum

freely composed harmony for organum, played over the cantus firmus or vox principalis
rythmic modes

short cells of rhythm repeated one after another that created a sense of regular pulse. Allow us to know when things will happen in a piece, finite number.
rules of consonance

notes have to line up at cadences and whenever the cantus firmus changed notes.
a point of temporary harmonic rest

First completely original genre in polyphony. No cantus firmus, bottom part freely composed.

polyphonic form. The CF only has notes and words (words soon dropped), monk added words to organum. words on top lines related to the words of the CF. First one was sacred but slowly secular ones written.
Macaronic Motet

words in motet are both latin and vernacular
Isorythmic motet

made of color and talea: pattern of pitches, things have to end in unison or in perfect 1/5ths, no worry about disonance.

repeating rythm pattern (origins in ars nova antigua)

Series of repeating pitches/notes
Philip de Vitry/Ars Nova

Wrote notation for rhythm and meter, Secular.

has definite meter, written for people to dance to. Written specifically for instruments.

people playing music together (broken=using instruments from different famalies, one of each instrument; haut=loud, bas=quiet)
Alfonso el Sabio

King of Spain, stayed in the las Huelgas monastery, Cantigas de Santa Maria were written under him.
Cantigas de Santa Maria

Prepared under Alfonso el Sabio, vernacular, devotional, monophony

Wrote words and music. Troubadours-elite musician/poets, secular, mostly love poetry in southern part of France, Trouveres-in the North, Trobaritz-female Troubadours
Formes Fixes

Templates for writing poetry that had a specific rhyme scheme -three types (ballade, rondeau, virelai). Had a repetition scheme.

types of formes fixes
Guillaume de Machaut (date)

1300, the last great medeival composer, formes fixes polyphonic troubadour. (wrote my end is my beginning (retrograde) also mass de notre dame)
"Ma fin est mon commencement" - My End is My Beginning

written by Guillame de Machaut, based on the concept of retrograde
Masse de Notre Dame

Guillame de Machaut, first complete polyphonic mass ordinary by one composer
"Quam Pulchra Es"

1400 - John Dunstable, motet, has no CF, the music reflects what is being sung
"La Contenance angloise"

1400 - John Dunstable, polyphonic lines, western harmony built on triads from this point on

A chord that has different pitch classes in it (three different notes happening at once, notes important)
Franco-Flemish Polyphonists/oltremontani

came from outside of Italy to work in Italy, Guillame Dufay(1400). proliferation of music coming from france/flemish speaking countries.

repeated subject in another key

upside down mirror image of notes
Retrograde Inversion

Inverted Mirror image or Mirrored inverted image

a round, second person comes in a little later than first person with same melody

Playing original notes but playing them longer

Playing original notes but playing them shorter
Guillame Dufay (date)

1400, franco-flemish composer
"Nuper Rosarum Flores"

Guillame Dufay (1400), motet written for the consecration of the cathedral, reflected the cathedral's double vaulting by putting two tenors in the piece.
"Missa L'Homme armé," cantus firmus mass

Anonymous writer, name of a popular tune, mass based on the tune; CF = tune
Cantus Firmus Mass

cyclical mass in which the tenor line carries the CF, usually slow, free composition in other voices. Varied ways in which they used the cantus firmus by techniques such as retrograde, inversion.
Josquin Des Prez

Franco-Flemish Poliphonist, oltremontani.
"Absalom Fili Mi"

motet, sacred, latin, no CF. Lament for the death of King David's song who was decapitated on his way to battle.
points of imitation

new phrase of text introduced by successive parts with the same melodic contour. Not an exact copy. Does not last past the starting point.
text painting

When the music represents what the text is saying (i.e. low voices where the text speaking of somber emotions, sed descendum)
frottola/"familiar style"

Italian vernacular piece written at carnival time (el grillo)/homophonic not polyphonous, many voices
paraphrase Mass

ornamentation, CF found everywhere
Ottaviano Pertucci

printed with movable type, printed Josquin's work and make him famous. Made a book for Josquin solely containing Josquin's work.
Pierre Attaignant

wrote chanson polyphoniqué, the nobles wanted and bought them.
Polyphonic Chansons

french part songs, secular, educated elites sang them.
Martin Luther/Chorales

"he" wanted to make music more accessible and thus wrote chorales in the vernacular.

German devotional music with phrases that rhyme, strophic, short and straightforward. Were original tunes or folk tunes with devotional words placed into them. The hymn came from the chorale. Began to function as the CF did.

In reaction to Luther's reformation, wanted to draw people back to the church. Did so by setting rules and regulations on music.
Trenten Council (1545)

musical rules in reaction to the reformation. no excessive intervals, no big leaps, music should go up as much as it comes down. Didn't want music to sound like vulgar madrigals. Music to be more functional and less about the composers.
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestina

wrote secular music, example of counter-reformation composer. Did not compose madrigals.

Established by the Church of England (Tallis wrote for this religion)
Thomas Tallis

first great church composer, wrote for catholic and anglican services. Was given exclusive rights by the Queen to compose polyphonic music from the queen. composed motets.
William Byrd

Queen Elizabeth favored him and allowed him to print his music. composed mass settings. Was catholic at a time when catholic church music was forbidden and only anglican music permitted.

Motets in English (Anglican), sacred music.

poetry: 14th century, 7-11 syllables, Petrarch/imitators, depiction of dramatic emotions
Musical: alternation between homophony/polyphony, text setting = prosody, very vivid use of text painting.
Petrarchian Revival

used his poems as a basis for works, poets were attempting to write in his style.
Luca Morenzio

renowned composer of madrigals.
Carlo Gesualdo

Wrote dissonant madrigals, was a wealthy prince so he could write what he liked. Used as many notes in the same place as he could. "Morro, Lasso"
Nicholas Yonge: Musica Transalpina

publisher, Lived in England (music across the alps) published Italian madrigals in English and other part songs, less serious. popularized madrigals.
Thomas Morley

famous composer of secular music. member of the English Madrigal School.
Claudio Monteverdi's 9 books

secular, vocal, madrigals elaborate in later books. Bridge between Renaissance and Baroque, worked at San Marco.
BAROQUE (date)
1600 - 1750
Basso Continuo

bass line, provides harmony, played by instruments who can play chords (triads) and something that can sustain a low note. Almost all Baroque music has _________.

a chunk of instrumental music that recurs at different points throughout the composition (notes and rhythm must be the same but different instruments can play it).
Ground Bass

a pattern of bass notes that continually repeats
Salamone Rossi

Wrote hebrew song settings in the style of christian church polyphony. Trio Principle.
Trio Principle

texture in which two melodic instruments play contrapuntally with accompaniment of the basso continuo. Not necessarily three instruments.
Giulio Caccini

proposed monody, wrote a book Le Nuove Musiche.
Le Nuove Musiche

book of monodies written by Giulio Caccini

solo singer, basso continuo, free ornamentation, without monody there would be no opera. Instruments can react to the person because they are alone.

setting text musically using the natural cadence of the language (i.e. setting music so it sounds like it is being spoken)
L'Orfeo (date)

1600, Monteverdi, second extant opera. Story of convincing boat man to take him across the river of Styx.

an evening length musical drama using orchestra, voice soloists, chorus, costumes, sets, and staging based around secular themes.

drama in several movements. Chorus very involved. Generally story from the hebrew bible, not word-for-word.

short music drama, vocal soloists, chorus, sacred, orchestra, basso continuo, recitative, aria.

the text or words of an extended musical composition.

solo singing in a musical drama, minimally accompanied. Narrate plot or deliver dialogue.
aria (da capo)

ABA' = go back to the beginning yet play with some ornamentation so it doesn't sound repetitive
Vespro della beata Maria vergine (date)

1610, sacred piece by Monteverdi, has ripieno and concertino. Prima pratica v seconda pratica.
Heinrich Schütz

Expressed German prosody in music.
Thirty Years War

Catholics v. Lutherans about land. Decimated land and also made people very poor. Schütz wrote pieces that could be played either for very few or very many.
Musikalische Exequien

Burial service music, wooly music - text painting. Schütz.

Written by Schütz.
Henry Purcell

English composer, orchestral master.
Oliver Cromwell

________ + puritan revolution did not allow the development of Opera in England. Stopped Purcell from writing Opera.

play with musical dramatic accompaniment inserted between scenes, does not have a linear thread, each scene loosely related, not quite opera.
Dido and Aeneas

first english opera ever written (Purcell).
Jean-Baptiste Lully

served Louis XIV, basically invented ballet, first conductor of an orchestra, developed french grande opera-long opera. Said to have died with conducting pole.
les violins du Roy

Arcangelo Corelli

Italian composer, the father of concerto grosso
Baroque Dance Suite

four movements, preludio, allemanda, grave-adagio, and giga. Meter and tempo came from popular dance at the time. Each dance had its own tempo/meter configuration
trio sonata

multimovement pieces written in trio texture, supported by basso continuo. Took structure from the basso continuo.
concerto grosso

Corelli: multi-movement, features contrast between ripieno (orchestra) and concertino (group of soloists from within the orchestra). BC plays under both. Movements are all in the same key with distinct meters and tempos.

orchestra, large sound

small group of solo players.
Antonio Vivaldi

taught at orphanage for little girls.
L'Ospeddale della Piéta

solo concerto

Vivaldi, one soloist against the orchestra
Georg Frederic Handel

credited with being the inventor of opera
English Oratorio

Chorus very involved, strong presence, Messiah = Handel Oratorio
Charles Jennens (Saul, Israel in Egypt)

wrote librettos for many of Handel's oratorios including Messiah. Saul = first king of Israel, wrote on oratorio based on him = Messiah
Johann Sebastian Bach (date)

(1685-1750) composer, his death ended the Baroque period. More of a synthesizer of what was going on than a great creator.
Brandenburg Concertos

Bach, concerto grosso, fast-slow-fast, 2 flutes, violin solo. concertino and ripieno, ritornello. A virtuoso showpiece. The material in ritornello is all thematically related.
The well Tempered Clavier

Bach. klavier like an updated version of the harpsichord. All notes sound good together. 24 preludes and fugues written in all keys.

must have at least two voices but can have more. Same theme stated by different voices. Contrapuntal

1st voice comes in on the note that the piece is written in, 2nd voice comes in 1/5th higher/lower. Countersubject happens during answer. in a fugue!

first section of the fugue (1st voice)

when entrances into a fugue overlap one another, voice enters when other voice has not completed its subject
liturgical cantatas

composed of soloist, chorus, and orchestra. Cantata written to heighten the effectiveness of the church service. Would write cantatas that reflected the service of the day.
Passion Oratorios

Bach wrote 4 of them, 4 gospels about the crucifiction. Text influenced by the gospels and written by a devotional poet. chorus plays the role of the crowd, comments on the action. actors act out parts, soloists sing arias and recitatives that comment on action.
Baroque Dance Suite
Four movements: preludio, allemanda, grave-adagio, and giga.

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