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8th grade History U.S. checkpoint 1


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the theory that a state's or nation's power depended on its wealth.
Columbian Exchange
exchange of goods, ideas, and people between Europe and the Americas.
Northwest Passage
water route to Asia through North America sought by European explorers.
a document that gives the holder the right to organize settlements in an area.
House of Burgesses
The colonies' first representative government. Met for the first time on July 30, 1619 in a church in Jamestown.
New settlement in 1607 built on a peninsula in Virginia. Built on peninsula so that they may defend themselves from an attack. Lacked good farmland, first settlement failed, only 38 colonists lived. John Smith forced the new settlers to work, explore the land, and got corn from the local Native Americans.
Mayflower Compact
a formal document, written in 1620, that provided law and order to teh Plymouth colony. Pledged the colonists; loyalty to England and declared their intention of forming a "civil body politic".
supreme power or sovereignty held by a single person.
Free-market economy-"Free enterprise"
the freedom of private businesses to operate competively for profit with minimal government regulation.
a large estate run by an owner or manager and farmed by laborers who lived there.
Navigation Acts
Series of laws passed between 1651 and 1673. Directed the flow of goods between England and the colonies. Prevented the colonists from sending certain products, such as sugar or tobacco outside of England's empire.
New England Colonies
Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, Connecticut. Mostly founded for religious feedom and profit from trade.
Middle Colonies
New York, Delaware, New Jersey, Pennsylvania. Mostly founded to expand trade and profit from selling land.
Southern Colonies
Virginia, Maryland, North Carolina, South Carolina, Georgia. Mostly founded for religous freedom, expand trade, profit from selling land and good farm land for cash crop farming.
Act of Toleration
Law passed in Baltimorein 1649 that granted the Protestants and Catholics the right to worship freely.
Proclamation of 1763
to prevent fighting, Britain called for a halt to the settlers' westward expansion. Settlers could not settle west of the Appalachian Mountains.
Stamp Act
1765, British Parliament passed this law in an attempt to raise money by taxing almost all printed materials.
Sugar Act
1764, British Parliment passed this law to stop smuggling. This act lowered the tax on molasses imported by the colonists.
Quartering Act
American colonists were forced to allow British soldiers to stay or "quarter" in their homes.
Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770, a fight broke out between townspeople and soldiers. Townspeople were yelling at the soldiers calling them names and daring them to fire. Eventually a redcoat did fire and 5 people were killed. It was reffered as a massacre because the people who were killed could not deffend themselves fairly.
Salutary Neglect
England left the colonies alone, and they became used to acting independently from England.
American Revolution
The result of all of the events and acts placed on the colonists by Britain. Began with the battle of Lexington in 1775 (also known as " The shot heard 'round the world". Ended with the American victory at Yorktown, Virginia on October19,1781. At that point, the Brithish felt that the war was too costly to continue.
Patrick Henry
Young member of the House of Burgesses, persuaded them to take action against the stamp act. Said the famous phrase,"Give me liberty or give me death" meaning that freedom is worth dying for.
Declaration of Independence
Thomas Jefferson wrote it, approved by Congress on July 4,1776, it announced the birth of the United States. John Hancock(the president of congress) was the first to sign and he signed so big "so that King George could read it without his glasses".
Inalienable rights (Unalienable rights)
a right that cannot be taken away without due process.
American colonists who were determined to fight the British until American independence was won.
American colonists who remained loyal to Britain and opposed the war for independece.
Lexington and Concord
After being warned by Paul Revere and William Dawes that the "regulars were out", the Americans at Lexington and Concord were ready and fired the "shot heard 'round the world" which began the battle for America's independence from Great Britain.
Battle of Saratoga
town in New York, On October 17, 1777 the British surrendered and it became a turning point in the war. AS a result, the French decided to join the Americans in their fight for independence.
American Revolution eneded with the American victory at Yorktown, Virginia on October 19,1781. General George Washington had executed a plan to surrond Cornwallis' troops at Yorktown and prevent their escape by sea with a French blockade.
Treaty of Paris
Following the victory at Yorktown, the British decided that the war was too costly to continue. Both the British and Americans sent representatives to Paris to work out a treaty. Signed on September 3,1783, Great Britain recognized the United States as an independent nation. Expanded the territory claimed by the new nation, and the British promised to remove their troops from American territory.
Articles of Confederation
adopted in November 1777, this was America's first constitution which provided for a central government under which the states gave up little of their power. Problems included inability to regulate trade, inability to impose taxes, lack of chief executive, and lack of money or ability to force the states to contribute money.
Thomas Paine (Common Sense)
published in 1776, written to convince the colonists of the mistreatment by British. Moved many American colonists toward independence.
A plan of government.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Created a single Northwest Territory out of the lands north of the Ohio River and east of the Mississippi River. It included a bill of rights for settlers , guaranteeing freedom of religion and trial by jury. When the territory's population reached 60,000 the people could petition to congress for statedhood.
a tax on imports or exports.
Shay's Rebellion
Led by Daniel Shays, angry farmers forced courts in western massachusetts to close so judges could not confiscate their lands because of inhability to pay of debts. It frightened many Americans because they worried that the government could not control unrest and prevent violence.
Magna Carta
signed by King John 1215, established the principle of limited government, in which the power of the king or government was limited.
Constitutitional Monarchy
Since Britain doesn't have a constitution, they say they are a : constitutional monarchy", their constitution is based on acts of Parliment.
Philadelphia Convention of 1787
George Washington was unanimously chosen to preside over meeting. Each state would have one vote on all questions. A majority vote would decide. No meetings unless at least 7 of the 13 states had representatives present. Sessions were kept secret. The Great Compromise by Roger Sherman consisted of a two-house legislature. In the lower house, the House of Representatives, the number of seats for each state would vary according to the state's population. In the upper house, the Senate, each state would have two members.
Three-fifths Compromise
Southern states wanted to include the enslaved in their population counts to gain delegates in the House of Representatives. Northern states did not because they considered the enslaved people property. The solution, known as the three-fifths compromise, was to count each enslaved person as three-fifths of a free person for both taxation and representation. Every enslaved person would equal 3/5 free person.
New Jersey Plan
kept the confederation's one-house legislature with one vote for each state. But, it gave congress the power to set taxes and regulate trade. It was designed to amend the Articles fo Confederation.
Virginia Plan
Mainly the work of James Madison, called for two-house legislature, a chief executive chosen by the legislature, and court system.
Bill of Rights
George Mason of Virginia proposed the bill of rights to be included in the Constitution. His plan was rejeccted. Anti-federalists believed that no government could be trusted to protect the freedom of its citizens. Bill of Rights was finally added to the constitution in 1791.
supporters of the constitution. Famous federalists include George Washington, Benjamin Franklin, James Madison, Alexander Hamilton, and John Jay.
individuals who opposed the ratification of the constitution. A famous Anti-federalists is Patrick Henry.

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