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Neuro Final 2


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Sleep: Stage 1
3-5 mins, low voltage, low frequency waves
Sleep: Stage 2
30 mins, low voltage, with "sleep spindles" - bursts
Sleep: Stages 3, 4
Delta waves; sleep spindles
REM sleep
Pre-motor & motor cortex work but brainstem stops sending signals to muscles; 'sleep paralysis'
Symptom of Narcolepsy: Cataplexy
Sudden loss of tone in major striated muscles
Symptom of Narcolepsy and REM sleep: Sleep Paralysis
Pre-motor & motor cortex work but brainstem stops sending signals to muscles
Symptom of Narcolepsy: Hypnagogic Hallucinations
REM sleep occuring instanteneously
Cause of Narcolepsy
Less hypocretin in hypothalamus, which controls appetite and sleep patterns
Type of Insomnia: Sleep-onset
Trouble falling asleep
Type of Insomnia: Sleep-maintnence
Waking up in middle of night
Type of Insomnia: Terminal
Waking up too early in morning
Benzodiazepine Receptor Agonists (BzRA), such as Xanax, Librium, Klonopin, and Valium
Drugs for insomnia. Increases sleep, but decreases Stage 3/4 sleep, and can be abused
Modafinil (Provigil)
Drug for Narcolepsy
High doses raise dopamine
Low doses raise serotonin

Not likely to be abused
Cognitive Synesthesia
Synesthesia based on categories
Grapheme-color Synesthesia
Cognitive synesthesia form

Alphanumeric characters are associated with colors
Number-form Synesthesia
Cognitive synesthesia form

Number map
Oridnal lingusitic personification
Cognitive synesthesia form

Ordered sequences have personalities
Synesthesia Proper
Two senses connected
Music-color Synesthesia
Synesthesia Proper

Music + Visualness
Lexical-gustatory Synesthesia
Synesthesia Proper

Words/phonemes stimulate taste sensations
Synesthesia may be caused by cross-wiring between the a]__________ and the b]__________, possibly due to a lack of c]_________.
a] V4 color processing area, inside the fusiform gyrus

b] Number area

c] Pruning
Synesthete diagnostic criteria
1] involuntary but elicited
2] projected
3] percepts are durable and discrete
4] memorabale
5] emotional
This is what depressants do
less activation of the nervous system; prevents action potentials form occurring;

neurotransmitters rush out while nothing comes in
Declarative memory
Conscious recollection of facts or events
Non-declarative memory
Unconscious alteration of behavior by experience
Episodic memory
Type of declarative memory; events, occurences
Semantic memory
Type of declarative memory; memory for general world knowledge
Procedural memory
Type of NON-declarative memory; e.g. riding a bike
Three parts of working memory
phonological loop, visiospatial sketchpad, central executive
Retrograde Amnesia
Can't remember things from past

Anterograde Amnesia
Can only remember things BEHIND a certain point

Alzheimers is caused by...
...clumps of fibers in the brain's gray matter.

...plaques deposited in blood vessles in and around brain: neurofibulary tangles.
Affect brain's 'how to' system: non-declarative, procedural memories

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