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Religion Final Flashcards


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At first the community of disciples was called
the Way
For christians, pentecost is often called
the birthday of the church
initially, the gentiles in Antioch did not join the Way because
they felt that Jewish Law was too hard to follow
The essential criterion for Christians is and was
belief in Jesus Christ
Antioch provides a solid example of a truly "catholic" community because it
was inclusive in its welcome to jews and gentiles
Church history began with
the disciples' personal experience of Jesus
Paul wrote the letters during his
second missionary journey
the disciples of jesus spread the Good News that
Jesus had been raised from the dead, was the long awaited Messiah, and was sent from God.
The church as an Institution means that it
has organized structures and roles to carry out its ministry
Paul wrote his letters in order to
give advice, instruction, and show concern
name means rock
supreme council of the jews
Place where Jewish temple was located
Gathering that settled the controversy about requirements for converts to Christianity
Council of Jerusalem
First large community of Jews and Gentiles
Followers associated most closely with Jesus
First Christian Martyr
Closely associated with the community of Antioch; also Paul's traveling companion
Probable place of Peter and Paul's martyrdoms
The silversmiths and magicians drove Paul away from this town
Greek city and birthplace of democracy
T/F Paul traveled with Barnabas on his second missionary journey.
T/F Early Christians met in churches to celebrate the Eucharist
T/F Paul was in his fifties when he undertook his third and last missionary journey
T/F Scholars are sure of the method in which Peter and Paul died
T/F The word gospel means good news
T/F The word canon means law or guidance.
T/F The Gospel of Mark was the first one written.
T/F During Paul's time only a small minority could read and write
T/F The word church means assembly
T/F The books that make up the Christian testament were written in the the third century.
The philosopher who awakened Augustine to his spiritual side was
The Roman Empire's intolerance of christianity occured partially because
the empire faced severe threats from the barbarians invading from the north
Christians were regarded as disloyal citizens beause of their refusal to
offer sacrifices to Roman gods
A belief that is contrary to an essential belief of Christianity is called
a heresy
Many christians sought a life of solitude in the fourth century because
they were searching for a type of authentic Christianity they did not find in their present life
The second-century church grew and developed as it experienced
hostility from outside and conflict from within
the establishment of communities of monks and nuns developed because
a common rule and guidance in their path to god
Monasteries became places of hospitality and service, but their primary work was
seeking God through the silence of prayer
Challenges to Christian belief
helped Christians clarify their own belief
Jerome and Augustine both
established monasteries, converted to Christianity, and were serious scholars
Though Ambrose became a bishop and scholar, he was first a
lawyer and govenor
The most influential people in Augustine's conversion were
Monica his mother and Ambrose
As a manichean, Augustine believed that
humans were not responsible for their sinful actions
Augustines writings influenced Christian theology of
original sin and grace
Against the Donatist heresy, Augustine taught that
the validity of the seven sacrements came through God through the ministry of the priest
The two orders taht evolved first in the church were
deacon and bishop
Persecuted Christians in a consistent, efficient manner
Claimed a great military victory in the name of Christ, son of God
Bishop who was taken to Rome to face his martyrdom
Ignatius of Antioch
Made Christianity the official religion of the Roman empire
Augustines autobiography
The Confessions
Latin version of the bible
Latin Vulgate
Decided to form religious communities to improve monastic life
alone or single
granted freedom of worship to Christians in the HRE
Edict of Milan.
T/F Initially, bishops headed single, relatively small churches
T/F Byzantium, or new rome, was eventually named constantinople
T/F Thomas Merton's long conversion experience was similar to Augustine's.
T/F The Nicene Creed has been an important definition of membership in the Catholic church for over 1600 years
T/F Basil thought that communal life should be complicated
The influence and power of Pope Leo I was clear when
he represented Rome in dealing with Atila the Hun and Vandals
The Council of Chalcedon declared that
Jesus is a real human and the real son of God
Pope Leo I objected to the rising primacy of the patriarch of C because
he thought this promotion was politically motivated
The conflict with the Eastern Chruch at constantinople would eventually lead to
a complete separation between the churches of east and west
the peoples dependence on god was balanced by
their awareness of the power of the devil
the Eucharistic celebration of the mass in the Eastern church
emphasized the sense of mystersy surrounding the sacrament
In the sixth century, typically the sacrament of reconciliation was
performed in public
the term Mass is derived from
the latin term Missa, used in the farewell that ended the celebartion
the following describes theodoric:
western, goth, arian
the frankish lands were acquired and consolidated under the leadership of
Justinian is best known for
the reform of civil law
The great church rebuilt by Justin
Hagia Sophia
After patrick became bishop,
he returned to ireland to preach the Good News
Gregory is often credited with
gathering and establishing the liturgical music tradition of the western church
The central belief of islam is
that there is one god and allah is his name
king of the franks
highest bridge maker
pontifex maximus
belief that jesus is both God and man
king of the goths
basis of European law
Justinian code
responsible for the double monastery, kildare
Benedicts famous monastery
monte cassino
a beautiful haunting style
Gregorian chant
founder of Islam
submission to god
islamic scriptures
a kind of prime minister of gaul, mayor of the palace
Charles Martel
ruler of the byzantine empire from 527-565
stronger in the east
stronger in the west
T/F The strong reign of Justinian in the east made it possible for easern church to reach its highest influence in that region
T/F Because Arianism was condemned at the Council of Nicea, it was no longer a threat to catholics by the fifth century
T/F Monasteries served as centers of stability during the disintegration of the West
T/F The Justinian code was so innovative that it did not succeed as a law code
Compared with the western emperors during the dark ages, the eastern emperors seemed strong
The courage and rugged energy of Boniface is exemplified in
his willingness to expose paganism and fear, confrontation with an immoral tribal king, return to missionary to place of earlier failure
Boniface's crowning of Pepin as king of the franks was a sign of
the accepted close relationship between church and rulers of that time
To this day, Venerable Bede is remembered as
a great historian of the English people
The centers of scholarship and learning during the upheaval in the West were
As a ruler over the papal states, the pope
had to turn his attention to material and territorial issues and conflicts
Charlemange saw forced conversion as a way to
strenthen his kingdom and increase church membership
the pop accepted charlemange's direction and orders because
the papal states depended on his power and protection
The breakup of the empire of Charlemange was caused in part by inneffective leadership and in part by
the invasion of the Vikings
Feudalism replaced centralized gov't because
the empire was unable to provide order and security for its subjects
The missionaries Cyril and Methodius eventually converted the Slavs to Christianity when they
translated the Gospels into the Slavic language
Vladmir I or Russia followed the accepted practice of his era when he
took on the task of choosing a religion for his people
In an effort to understand the known religions of his people, Vladmir I
conversed with Christians, Muslims and Jews
Rich Roman families influenced the church in Rome by
using their power to influence the election of the pope and control of the church's affairs
the monastery at cluny was unusual because it was
free of the influence of feudal lords.
T/F Boniface's first and last missionary work took place in the netherlands
T/F Though Boniface was dedicated to preaching the word of God, he was most proud of crowning charlegmane king of the franks
T/F Bede is given the title venerable to show that he is deserving of respect and veneration
T/F Bedes greatest contribution is his history of the Franks
T/F The Papal states were created in 756 when Charlemagne contributed land to the pope
T/F Serfs worked for a negotiable living wage
T/F In the feudal system, power was concentrated at the top
T/F The creation of the Cyrillic alphabet was decisive in converting the Slavic people to Christianity
T/F Vladmir I chose to be baptized into the Byzantine Chruch
T/F The buying and selling of church offices or positions is called simony
Apostle of Germany
Deposed of Pope John XII
King Otto I
Sea Rovers
Was the Historian-monk
Crowned Charlemagne "emperor of the romans"
Pope Leo III
Pepin's father
Charles Martel
One who pledged loyalty to a higher lord or overlord
crowned king of Hungary by the pope
Stephen I
Monastery that served as the center for church reform
Top of the feudalism pyramid
Towns began to be established as a result of
the increase in agricultural production and population increases
Guilds were developed to
prepare and support their workers and improve workmanship
The Concordat of Worms
resovled that all bishopws would be elected and consecrated by church authority
medieval cathedrals provided space for
priests and monks to sing/recite the divine office, great numbers of people, a meeting and hiring place for guilds
the fundamental issue that finally separated the East and West churches was
the authority of the pope
The failure of nonviolent means to convert the Alibgensians led to the more agressive and violent
Papal inquisition
The mendicant orders differed from other religious orders in that they
moved among the people in towns and the countryside
The Franciscans attempted to carry out Francis' expample of
poverty and simplicity of life
The essential elements of the first universities were
a learned teacher and students
The first universities depended on lectures, memorization, and oral tests because
paper and books were expensive and scarce
T/F Pope Gregory VII instituted many necessary church reforms
T/F The eastern church spoke greek, the western latin.
T/F From strong guilds a new class of free citizens evolved in Europe
T/F Though the crusades were a moral failure, they opened Europe to the culture of the Far East
T/F Mendicant orders were distinguished by their poverty and simplicity
T/F Mendicant means forgiver
T/F During the middle ages, cathedrals and universities were created
T/F History locates 1054 as the year of the split b/w Eastern and Western churches
T/F Pilgirimages to the holy land were often an important part of Christain life in the middle ages
T/F the Albigensians saw all material things as good
T/F The midle ages were distinguisehed by the growth of towns and cities and increasing power of kings
T/F Typically, the Arabians were persecuted for succeeding in banking practices closed to christians
T/F since 962, the french rulers considered themselves emperors of the HRE
T/F Unlike the first college of cardinals, todays college represents Cardinals from around the world
T/F The area in cathedrals set aside to accomadate large numbers of people is called the chancel.
T/F The children's crusade ended in the enslavement of many children
T/F The most influential theologian during the middle ages was thomas aquinas
forerunners of trade unions
T/F Four major peace piligrimages were undertaken over the span of 200 years in the middle ages
T/F from the beginning, cathedrals were independent from the control of local bishops and peace
founded in 1098 as a reformed offshoot of the Benedictines
the most powerful of the medieval popes
Pope Innocent III
not marrying
also known as Hildebrand
Gregory VII
series of psalms and prayers organized for use during the liturgical season
Divine Office
patriarch of Constantinople; publicly delcared that the two churches could not be in union
Michael Cerularius
responsible for calling the first crusade
Pope Urban II
their heresy saw all material things, including the human body, as bad
begun the Papal inquisition
Pope Gregory IX
founded the order of the preachers
Dominic de Guzman
founded the Friars Minor
Francis of Assisi
central points for people's lives and work

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