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Approaching Democracy chapter 14


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affirmative action
programs that attempt to improve the chances of minority applicants for jobs, housing, employment, or education by giving them a "boost" relative to white applicants with similar qualifications
black codes
laws restricting teh civil rights of African Americans
refusal to patronize any organization that practies policies perceived as politically, economically, or ideologically unfair
civil disobedience
breaking the law in a nonviolent fashion and being willing to suffer the consequences even to the point of going to jail, in order to publicly demonstrate that the law is unjust
de facto equality
equality of results, whih measures real-world obstacles to equal treatment. for example: do people actually live where they want? do they work under similar conditions?
de jure equality
equality before the law. it disallows legally mandated obstacles to equal treatment, such as laws that prevent people from voting, living where they want to, or taking advantae of all the rights guaranteed to individuals by the laws of the federal, state, and local governments
the elimination of laws and practies that mandate racial separation
equality of opportunity
the idea that "people should have equal rights and opportunities to develop their talents" that all people should begin at the same starting point in a race
equality of result
the idea that all forms of inequality, including economic disparities, should be completely eradicated; this may mean giving certain people a starting advantage so that everyone has fair chances to succeed
freedom riders
civil rigths activists who traveled throughout the american south on buses to test compliance with the supreme court's mandate to intergrate bus terminals and public facilities accommodating interstate travelers
heightened scrutiny test
a middle-level standard that would force the state to prove more than just the reasonableness of a law, though not its compelling nature, in order to justify it. for women's rights cases this means proving the important governmental objectives of the law's goals and linking it to the wording of the law.
government efforts to balance the racial composition in schools and public places
Jim Crow laws
laws passed by southern states that separated teh races in public places such as railroads, streetcars, school, and cemeteries
a system in which employers advance wages and then require workers to remain on their jobs, in effect enslaving them, until the debt is staisfied
poll tax
a fee that had to be paid before one could vote; used to prevent african americans from voting; now unconstitutional
protest march
march in which people walk down a main street carying signs, singing freedom songs, and chanting slogans
quota programs
programs that guarantee a certain percentage of admissions, new hires, or promotions to members of minority groups
prejudice against the female gender
a protest technique in which protesters refuse to leave an area
state action
action taken by state officials or sanctioned by state law
strict scrutiny test
test of laws that discriminate on the basis of characteristic "immutable (or unchangeable) by birth," such as race or nationality; in such cases the burden shifts from the plaintiff to state, forcing the government to show the compelling reasons for the law
the right tovote
test of reasonableness
test in court cases of what reasonable people would agree to be constitutional because the law has a rational basis for its existence
unfair discrimination
unequal treatment based on race, ethnicity, gender and other distinctions

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