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Approaching Democracy chapter 10


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civil disobedience
breaking the law in a nonviolent fashion and being willing to suffer the consequences even to the point of going to jail, in order to publically demonstrate that the law is unjust
coattails effect
riding the president's cottails into office occurs in an election when voters also elect representatives or senators belonging to a successful presidential candidate's party
contingency election
an election held int eh House if no candidate receives the majority int he electoral college
deviating election
election in which the minority party captures the white house because of short-term intervening forces, and thus a deviation from the expectation that power will remain in the hands of the dominant party
electoral college
the group of 538 electors who meet separately in each of their states and teh DC on the first monday following the second wednesday in december after a national presidential election. their majority decision officially elects the president and vice president of the US
faithless elector
member of the electoral college who casts his or her vote for someone other than the state's popular vote winner
federal matching funds
system under which presidential candidates who raise a certain amount of money in the required way may apply for and receive matching federal funds
good-character test
a requirement that voting applicants wishing to vote produce two or more registered voters to vouch for their integrity
independent expenditures
funds dispersed, as allowed by a loophole in campaign finance law, by a group or person not coordinated by a candidate, in the name of a cause
a proposal sumitted by the public and voted upon during elections
issue advocracy
the process of campaigning to persuade the public to take a position on an issue
literacy test
a requirement that voting applicants had to demonstrate an understanding of national and state constitutions. primarily used to prevent African Americans from voting in the south
maintaining election
election in which the majority party of the day wins both conress and the white house, maintaining its control of government
midterm elections
elections in which americans elect members of congress but not presidents
mass political involvement through voting, campaign work, political protests, civil disobedience, among many others.
party identification
a psychological orientation, r long-term propensity to think positively of and vote regularly for, a particular political party
political violence
violent action motivated primairly by political aims and intended to have a political impact
poll tax
a fee that had to be paid before one could vote; used to prevent africn americans from voting; now unconstitutional
expression of dissatisfaction; may take the form of demonstrations, letters to newspapers or public officials, or simple 'opting out' of the system by failing to vote or participate in any other way
realigning election
election characterized by m assive shifts in partisan identification, as in 1932 with the new deal coalition
a proposal submitted by a state legislature to the public for a popular vote, often focusing on whteher a state should spend money in a certain way
retrospective voting
a particularly powerful form of issue voting in which voters look back over the past term or two to judge how well an incumbent or the 'in party' has performed in office
soft money
campaign contributions directed to advancing the interests of a political party or an issue in general, rather than a specific candidate
split-ticket ballots
ballots on which people vote for candidates from more than one party
straight-party ticket
ballots on which people vote for only one party
voter turnout
the percentage of eligible voters who actually show up and vote on election day

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