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Chemistry 1st Semester Review Cards


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JJ Thompson
JJT discovered the electron using a cathode ray. He found that e- could be removed from atoms. Stated:All atoms have e-, are neutral, and have protons.
substance that contains only one kind of atom, cannot be broken down into new material., aluminum *The pure gold chain is an element.
substance made up of two or more kinds of atoms. ex. salt, water
*Water is a compound made up of Hydrogen and Oxygen.
Milliken determined the mass of the e- using the oil drop experiment.
*Milliken discovered that the mss of e- is 9.11E-31 kg
Alpha Particle
is a radioactive(subatomic) particle with a positive charge. ex.unstable elements like Na emmit beta particles
*The radioactive explosion released alpha particles.
Beta Particle
is a radioactive subatomic) particle with a negative charge. ex.unstable elements like Na emmit beta particles *The radioactive explosion released beta particles.
developed the first periodic table. He organized elements by atomic mass, and properties. ex. he put metals with metals
developed the Nuclear Atom model. it has a dense + core w/ a - outside charge. ex. he proved this theory w the gold foil experiment shooting + charges through the foil
Gold Foil Experiment
used by Rutherford to discover the dense + core of atoms. He shot + particles into a Au foil sheet and some reflected.
Bohr model of atom
Planetary model, e- orbit. dif. orbits=dif. energy levels ex. the outer orbit energy > than the first orbit energy
Frequency of a Wave
f=1/T or f=v/wavelength
Energy Level
The energy level of an e- relates to what orbital it is at. ex.The energy level of an e- is at its highest when it is at a far orbital.
Chemical Group
A chemical group includes all of the elements in a column of the periodic table. ex. The Noble Gas group is the column farthest right of the PT.
Valence Electrons
Valence e- are all electrons in the outer most orbital of an atom. ex. The elements in the Noble Gas group have 8 valence electrons
Noble Gas
Noble Gases are non-reactive elements with 8 valence electrons. ex. Neon is in the Noble Gas group.
Melting Point
A temperature where a substance changes state from a solid to a liquid. ex. the melting point of water is 32 degrees F.
Is the change in state of a substance from solid to gas w/o passing through the liquid sate. ex.Dry ice goes through sublimation at room temperature.
Change of sate of a substance from gas to solid w/o passing through the liquid state. ex.Water vapor in the freezer freezes into a solid.
Is the substance being mixed into a solvent in a solution. ex. chocolate powder is a solute in chocolate milk
is the substance in which a solute is being mixed in a solution. ex. mild is a solvent in chocolate milk
Tyndall effect
is when light is scattered in a colloid mixture. ex. The colloid fog goes through the Tyndall effect
Heterogeneous mixture
a mixture where the particles are visible to the naked eye. ex. dirt in water
Homogeneous mixture
a mixture where the particles mix in completely and are not visible. ex. food coloring in water
a measurement of how much mass is in a certain volume. ex. There are 19.3 grams of mass in a cubic centimeter of gold.
A compound that is made up of only hydrogen and oxygen atoms. ex. propane, propene
A substance with a pH lower than 7. it is a hydrogen ion giver. ex. battery acid, vinegar
A substance with a pH higher than 7. it is a hydrogen ion receiver. ex. ammonia, milk
flame test
test where metal is burned and gives off a unique color to ID the metal ex.sodium turns the flame bright orange.
organic means that the substance contains carbon. ex.Even pesticides with carbon are considered organic.
chains made up of monomers during polymerization. ex. proteins are polymers.

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