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AP Bio C 11


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signal transduction pathway
conversion of a cell surface signal to a cellular response
paracrine signalling
cell secrete signals to nearby cells
synaptic signalling
nerve cells send message between cells
travel to distant cells
stages of cell signalling
reception transduction, response
signal molecule cause molecule to change shape
G-protein linked receptors
receptors that work with G-proteins
-ligand bind to G protein linked receptor which activates the receptor
-receptor binds to activates a G protein
- GTP replaces GDP
G protein
protein on cytiplasmic side of the membrane
- after receptor binds to it, it activates a membrane bound enzyme
- next it takes h+ from GTP and becomes inactive again
tyrosine kinase
enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from ATP to tyrosine in a substrate protein

- tyroisijne kinase portions of each polpeptide
-relay protein bind to sepcific phospohorlated tysoines and become ativat4ed
tyrosine kinase receptor
1)ligand bonding causes two receptor to form a dimer
2)tyrosines gain P.ATP--> ADP
3)- realy protein bind to specific phosphorylated tyrosines and become activated
4)other transduction pathways are triggered
ligand-gated ion channel
protein pre opens and closes allowing ions through the membrane
intracellular recpetors
messengers enter a cell and bind to receptors in cytoplasm
realy molecules
pass message on to another
protein kinase
enzymes that transfer phosphate groups from ATP to proteins
protein phospahtates
enzymes that remove phosphate groups from proteins
second messengers
relay the signal from the membrane bound receptor to cell's interior
cyclic AMP
1) extracellular ligand binds to G protein-linked receptor
2) G protein-linked receptor activates andenyly cyclase
3) cAMP activates kinase A
4) Kinase A sets off a phosphorylated cascade
andenyl cyclase
membrane protein that converts ATP to cAMP
signal amplification
signal cascade

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