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cis chap 1


undefined, object
copy deck
home, educational, workplace, miscellaneous
uses of computers
a programmable electronic device that accepts data (input), performs operations on the data (processing), presents the results (output), stores the data and results (storage).
sometimes considered the 5th primary computer operation
-abacus, slide rule, mechanical calculator and Hollerith's Punch Card Tabulating Machine and Sorter.
precomputers or early computers
-powered by vacuum tubes
-one program run at a time
-not fast and powerful as today's computers
-input was punch cards
-output was printed on paper
1st generation computer
-used transistors
-smaller, faster, and powerful than 1st gen.
-input was punch cards
-output was printed on magnetic tapes
2nd generation computers
a device that is made out of semiconductor material that can act as a switch to open or close an electronic unit.
-used integrated circuits
-smaller, powerful and faster than pervious gene.
-inputs were keyboards
-output was monitors
-used operating systems
3rd generation computers
many transistors and electronic circuits were incorporated on single silicon chip
integrated circuits
-used microprocessors
-smaller, faster and powerful than past gen. computers
-input was keyboard and mouse
-output was printers and monitor
-storage devices floppys disks CDs
4th generation computers
cpu made on single chip. that means entire core processing capabilities are put on a single chip
-now and in future
-based on artificial intelligence and voice recognition
-take a different form like optical computer
-make smaller
-more powerful and faster
5th generation computers
refers to all the physical components of computers such as keyboard, mouse, monitor, printer, floppy, etc.
any piece of equipment that is used to input data into the computer
input device
the main device is central processing unit (CPU)
processing device
accepts processed data from the computer and presents it to the user
output device
a variety of drives and storage media used to store data
storage device
modems and network adapters, allow users to communicate electronically with others.
communications device
the programs or instructions used to tell hardware in a computer system what to do
the collection of software that allows a computer to operate. The main system software program is the operating system.
system software
programs designed to allow people to perform specific tasks using a computer
application software
a set of rules used to write computer programs Ex: C, C++, JAVA, etc.
programming language
small devices with some type of built in computing or Internet capability
mobile devices
designed to be used by one person at a time
personal computers
designed to be used in conjuction with a company network, typically use a network server for storage and processing, also called network computers
thin clients
a medium sized computer used to host programs and data for a small network
midrange server
the standard choice for organizations, larger, more expensive, and more powerful than midrange server, runs multiple programs at one time
mainframe computer
the most powerful and most expensive type of computer available, generally runs one program at a time very fast
super computer
ability to design and test buildings before construction and other virtual applications
benefit of computer-oriented society
earlier diagnois and more effective treatment of diseases
benefit of computer-oriented society
ability to shop, pay bills, research products, take online courses, and locate info 24 hours a day
benefit of computer-oriented society
faster communications and financial transactions
benefit of computer-oriented society
stress and health concerns
risk of computer-oriented society
personal security and privacy issues
risk of computer-oriented society
fear of "big brother" situations
risk of computer-oriented society

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