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Human Origins: Final Exam: Early Hominids


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Location: Central Africa
Major Site: Chad
Date Range: 6-7 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Michel Brunet
Additional points: may be bipedal due to placement of the foramen magnum
Sahelanthropus tchadensis
Location: East Africa, Rift Valley
Major Site: Tugen Hills, Kenya
Date Range: ~6 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Andrew Hill and Brigitte Senut
Additional points: earliest known hominid, CT scans of the proximal femur have shown t
Orrorin tugenensis
Location: East Africa
Major Site: Aramis
Date Range: 5.5-4.4 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Tim White
Additional points: NOT an australopithecilne, possible human ancestor, very primitive cranium, ape-like, thin enam
Aridipithecus ramidus
Location: East Africa
Major Site: Kanapoi, Allia Bay
Date Range: 4.2-3.9 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Meave Leakey
Average cranial capacity: small, apelike, ~400cc
Additional points: earliest australopithecine
Australopithecus anamensis
Location: East Africa
Major site: Radar, Laetoli
Date range: 3.9-3.0 mya (K/Ar dates)
Associated paleoanthropologist: Tim White and Don Johanson
Average Cranial capacity: 420cc
Additional points: Lucy=40% of a skelet
Australopithecus afarensis
Location: East Africa
Major site: West Turkana, Kenya
Date Range: 3.2-3.5 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Meave Leakey
Additional points: "flat-faced Kenya human", characterized by large flat face, but small cheek teeth,
Kenyanthropus platyops
Location: East Africa
Major site: Middle Awash (Bouri)
Date range: 2.5 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Tim White
Average cranial capcity: 450cc
Additional points: possible first tool users (Oldowan industry), lon
Australopithecus garhi
Location: East Africa
Major site: West Lake Turkana
Date Range: 2.5 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Alan Walker
Average cranial capacity: 410cc
Additional points: Black Skull (WT 17,000), probably ancestral to Aus
Australopithecus/Paranthropus aethiopicus
Location: South Africa
Major site: Taung, Sterkfontein, Kromdraai, Makapansgat
Date Range: 3.6-2.5mya
Associated Paleoanthropologist: Raymond Dart
Average cranial capacity: 440cc
Additional points: first australopith
Australopithecus africanus
Location: South Africa
Major Site: Swartkrans, Kromdraai
Date range: 2-1.5 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Robert Broom
Average cranial capacity: 530cc
Australopithecus/Paranthropus robustus
Location: East Africa
Major site: Olduvai Gorge, Koobi Fora
Date range: 2-1 mya
Associated paleoanthropologist: Mary and Louis Leakey
Average cranial capacity: 631cc
Additional points: significant increase in cranial
Homo(Australopithecus?) habilis
What are the anatomical features of robust australopithecines?
sagittal crest
large zygomatics
postorbital constriction
postcanine megadontia
small incisors and canines
very large mandible
reorientation of temporalis muscle
small brain
Taung child
Australopithecus africanus
3-6 year old child
first australopithecine found
Australopithecus afarensis
40% complete skeleton
Hadar Zinj
Austraopithecus boisei
Olduvai Gorge
found by Mary Leakey
Black Skull
Australopithecus aethiopicus
West Lake Turkana
Australopithecus africanus
Australopithecus robustus
ER 1813 and ER 1470
Homo habilis
East Lake Turkana
Location: Africa, Europe
Major Sites: Nariokotome (West Lake Turkana), East Turkana (East Rudolph), Olduvai Gorge, Swartkrans, Ternifine, Dmanisi
Date Range: 1.9-1.4 mya
Average cranial capacity: 900-1100cc
Homo ergaster
Which species is considered by many to be the same species as H. erectus, with the minor differences between them explained as regional variation?
Homo ergaster
Which species in Africa is associated with the Oldowan tool industry?
Homo ergaster
Who was the first hominid to move out of Africa and into more temperate regions?
Homo ergaster
WT 15000 (the Nariokotome Boy) is the most complete skelton we have, prior to Neandertals. Of what species is WT 15000?
Homo ergaster
Location: East Asia
Major sites: Zhoukoudian, Longgupo, Trinil, Sangiran, Ngandong, Hexian
Date range: 1.8 mya
Average cranial capcity: 750-1100cc
Homo erectus
Which fossil ancestor was found in 1891 by Eugene Dubois in Java at the site of Trinil and consisted of a skullcap and a femur?
Homo erectus
What species is also known as Pithecanthropus erectus, Java Man, Peking Man, Pithecanthropus soloensis, Sinanthropus?
Homo erectus
Which species' tool industry is known as the Acheulean which is best known for its hand axes (or bifaces) and cleavers?
Homo erectus
Which species shows possible evidence for hunting and increased meat consumption?
Homo erectus

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