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Theo 110 Final Exam Review


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Document created in 1943 by Pope Pius XII now allowed the modern historical method to be used officially by historians studying the Bible and the Church. Was a precusor to the reforms of Vatican II.
"Divino Afflante Spiritu"
Created in 1964, this document by the Pontifical Biblical Commission described the three stages of Gospel Formation as 1) the words and actions of Jesus, 2) oral tradition, and 3) writings of the evangelists.
"On the Historical Truth of the Gospels"
Also called "The Constitution on Divine Revelation", this important document created by Vatican II in 1965 demonstrated a dynamic understanding of revelation and use of the historical method. Stressed the 'living voice of the gospel.'
"Dei Verbum"
Created in 1965 by Vatican II, this document, also called the "Declaration fo the Church to Non-Christian Religions" was a dramatic reversal of Pope Pius IX's "Syllabus of Errors" because it stated that truth and holiness were found i
"Nostra Aetate"
The accepted books of the Christian Bible, set by Athanasius in his work the "Festal Letter."
The Canon of Scripture
Created at the councils of Nicea (325 AD) and Constantinople (381 AD). Noted theological and philosophical development compared to the earlier Apostles' Creed. Now includes a 'filioque' which in Latin means 'and the Son.'
Nicene Creed
Officially written in 215 AD, but could be traced to the times of the Apostles, this Creed is not as theologically developed because there were no heresies yet the Church had to respond to.
Apostles Creed
Written between 50 and 200 AD, this is comprised of other books added to the traditional canon. They include secret truths, "hidden things", acts, letters, and gnostic gospels.
Called by Pope Pius IX in 1869 to combat the modernist crisis, this Council was also called to reassert Catholic and Papal power. Most important was the doctrine of papal infallibility and Pius' "Syllabus of Errors."
Vatican I
Called by Pope John XXIII in 1962, was a very drastic reversal of Vatican I. Documents like "Nostra Aetate" and "Dei Verbum" called for religious tolerance and acceptance and an embracing of modern historical methods.
Vatican II
A period of time that stressed reason and logic over emotion. It challenged religion and questioned the tradional God in the increasingly technologically driven world.
The Enlightenment
A movement which stressed emotion over reason, followed the Enlightenment. Stated that God was not a bunch of propositions and facts but that human emotion was important.
Movement where the Bible was studied for its original context, authors, sources, and forms. Caused Vatican I as it was seen as a threat to the church.
A Protestant missionary movement which taught that doctrine was not an end to itself, as each person must form their own personal relationships with God. Focused on a life of holiness and personal spirituality.
Parts of "Divino Afflante Spiritu," which led to Vatican II.
Biblical, Historical, and Liturgical Renewal (leading up to Vatican II)
Benedictine monk who became archbishop of Canterbury. He believed revelation began with prayer and meditation in the mind - "I believe in order to understand." Also believed that God is than than which nothing greater can be thought. "Fait
Anselm of Canterbury
Monk who Christianised Aristotle through his five proofs of God's existence.
Thomas Aquinas
Stressed revelation as a sort of "inner illumination." God speaks to man through this illumination, and helps them to understand dark mysteries, especially questions of the divine.
St. Bonaventure
Believed that two steps were essential for the knowledge of faith - first, the learning of things to be believed, and second, the assent to the things which are being proposed. Also, said that the two steps in the historical proposition of faith were pre
Francis Saurez
Believed revelation had five characteristic traits - religious, mysterious economic, dotrinal, and dogmatic.
John Henry Newmann
Enlightenment thinker, mathmatician "cogito ergo sum." Believed that God was ultimate perfection, and therefore he must exist.
Rene Descartes
French scientist and philosopher who had a very negative world view as opposed to the optimism of this era. Believed that God could not be proven rationally and that one must take a "leap of faith" in this world. Also, grace was a "win/win
Blaise Pascal
This Enlightenment thinker believed in God, but saw him more as a mechanic who set the universe in motion and therefore is the source of all activity. However, he denied the Trinity.
Isaac Newton
"To be is to be perceived." The mind must perceive in order to exist. This Enlightenment thinker believed all experiences are ideas in the mind, and all in our minds must come from God's infitnite mind.
George Berkeley
Jewish thinker who was later expelled form the Synagouge. Believed that God = nature and that nothing could be conceived without Him, as everything is an attribute of God.
Baruch Spinoza
Jewish mystic involved with the Kabalah. He believed everyone should and could be able to experience God's presence.
Baal Shem-tov
A French priest and a pioneer in Biblical studies. Hypothesised that different authors wrote the Pentatuch, not just Moses. This was because of inconsistencies found in the different books. One of the first to use the historical/critical method to study
Richard Simon
The Father of Modern theology. Taught that the Church is a dynamic and organic organism, and doctrine is therefore always evolving and developing.
F.D.E. Schleiermacher
Believed in interior enlightenment first by the Holy Spirit. Also believed the Church was a dynamic, relevant force in the world today. Theorised that revelation first began with the Incarnate Word, which passed to the Apostles, and then became the doctr
John Mohler
Came up with the thesis/antithesis/synthesis format. Believed all religions in the world to be important, but only Christianity was the ultimate truth. Embraced both the past and future of the Church, and was a supporter of the Trinity and the Incarnatio
G.W.F Hegel
Against modern thought (believed the Church to be incompatible with it). Wrote "The Syllabus of Errors" (anti Protestant, other world religions, modernism, etc.) and called Vatican I (which created the doctrine of Papal Infallibility) to reasse
Pope Pius IX
The WWII Pope created the encyclical "Divino Afflante Spiritu" which allowed for the new historical methods to be used in the Church. Thus, he helped bring about the whirlwinds of reforms during Vatican II.
Pope Pius XII
Called Vatican II by stating that the Church needed to open its windows and let in a "breath of fresh air." A historian, he called for peace, interation and cooperation between faiths, and an embracing of both the new and the traditional.
Pope John XXII
A Jesuit paleontologist who believed that Christianity was always evolving towards a higher knowledge, with the risen Jesus at its centre (manifested through charity ). Theory of the "divine milieu" or God in everything.
Pierre Teihard de Chardin
Believed God to be an existential force who gives humans "meaning in meaninglessness." Humans should not despair because of the ultimate hope. The ground of being is the divine spirit, and the ultimate concern is Christ as a new being.
Paul Tillich
An African-American theologian who was important to the "liberation theology" movement. Critised whites who talked about this theology, especially after their enslavement of African-Americans.
James Cone
Iranian who looked to hajj and the Kabah, empty and simple, to refocus people on the ineffable God. Also involved with the Iranian Revolution.
Ali Shariati
Focused on the individual's personal encounters with God in an "I-Thou" relationship.
Martin Buber
Jewish theologican who focused on the Rabbic tradition, talmud, and Torah for revelation.
Abraham Joshua Heschel
German Catholic theologian who influenced many of the new doctrines of Vatican II. Had a very modern understanding of the Catholic Church. Believed that God was always priority, and that the central doctrine of Christianity is grace.
Karl Rahner
Founder and prophet of Islam and the Muslim faith.
Muslim theologian who believed that life was an illusion, nonetheless he also believed in free will.
Abu al-Hasan ibn Ismail ad-Ashari
The holy book of Islam, which has influences of the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible. Written by Muhammad with divine inspiration.
Koran or Qur'an
The chapters of the Qur'an, with the Fatiah being the first.
The major parts of the Muslim faith
1. Repeat the creed (Shahadah)
2. Daily prayer (salah)
3. Almsgiving (zakah)
4. Fasting
5. Pilgrimage (hajj)
Five Pillars of Islam
One of the Five Pillars of Islam, the repetition of the creed.
The first sura of the Qur'an which uses phrases like "most gracious" and "master of the Day of Judgment."
An example of throne mysticism, a journey that Muhammad took with the angel Gabriel.
"Night Journey"
A work of pre-Kabalistic Jewish mysticism, that speaks of the "measurements of God."
Shiur Qomah
Meditation on one of these symbols, which brings a higher closeness to God. When it is over, the teachings should be turned into action.
Chariot or "Throne" Mysticism
Jewish mystic sect. The idea is go beyond earhtly suffering. Large focus on Throne and Chariot visions.
A religion that blends the monotheism of Islam with the Hindu belief in Reincarnation.
The liberation from the cycle of reincartion - life and death to reach Nirvana.
Hindu God, the one reality. Everything that exists is an expression of him. Is sexless, eternal, unknowable, impersonal, ineffable, with no past, present, or future.
An ethical system, like caste.
The Law of Manu
A part of the Vedas, which appear in later editions. They are a reaction against the priestly cult. Focuses on meditation over sacrifice, which leads to true knowledge and release.
The Upanishads
Very old Hindu scriptures, contains four books with four parts.
The Vedas
Hindu belief that souls go through life and death cycles, until they finally reach Nirvana.
"What goes around, comes around." The idea that what you do in your past lives will effect your life in the next.

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