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What is the type of drug that works in the PCT?
Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors
The PCT is the major site for _____ reabsorption? What percentage does it reabsorb? (several things)
amino acids, glucose, cations, sodium cloride and sodium bicarbonate, 60-70%
Where is CA found in the PCT?
On the brush border and inside the cell.
What is the class of drugs that work in the TAL? What specifically does it inhibit?
Loop diuretics, the Na,K,2Cl cotransporter.
What 2 molecules are reabsorbed in the TAL?
Ca and Mg
What percentage of reabsorption takes place in the TAL?
What does the K do in the TAL?
K is pumped into the cell from both directions, thus, it "excapes" through a K-channel into the lumen. This creates a net Positive charge in the lumen.
What is pumped out of the lumen of the nephron in the DCT?
Na and Cl
What class of drug works in the DCT?
Thiazide diuretics
What percentage of molecules is reabsorbed in the DCT?
In what segment of the nephron does PTH work? What does it control?
DCT, Ca reabsorption
In which segment of the nephron does aldosterone work? What specically does it control?
CCT, Na reabsorption, when Na is absorbed, K is excreted.
What types of drugs work in the CCT?
K-sparing diuretics
What do K-sparing diuretics target?
the aldosterone receptor and the Na channels of the CCT.
What hormone controls water reabsorption?
ADH in the CCT.
Describe the effect of the CA inhibitor.
It causes increased sodium bicarbonate excretion.
Name a drug that is a CAi. It is a _____ derivative.
Acetazolamide. sulfonamide
Does the effect of CAi only happen in the nephron? Where else might it happen?
NO, in eye and CSF
If body bicarbonate is depleted _______ will result.
metabolic acidosis
Most drugs act from the _____ side of the membrane, and thus must be _____.
luminal side, filtered through the glomerulus
________, an aldosterone receptor antagonist group, enters the collecting tubule from the basolateral side.
Acetazolamide can be use to treat _______, b/c it lowers the IOP.
Name a CAi that can be used to treat glaucoma and high-altitude sickness.
What is really the only reason that you would choose to prescribe aceatzolamide for its diruetic effect?
if the person had signifcant metabolic alkalosis.
Can acetazolamide cause kidney stones?
Name an example of a loop diuretic. It is a ______ derviative.
Furosemide, sulfonamide
Loop diuretics inhibit the function of _____.
the Na,K,Cl cotransporter
Are the loop diuretics long or short acting?
short, only lasts about 4-hours
A full dose of furosemide causes __________.
big excretion of Na and Cl. (sodium chloride diuresis)
Without the Na,K,Cl cotransporter you loose the ____ potiental in the ____.
loose the positive potential in the lumen.
______ will result( the final state of body) from the use of fursoemide.
hypokalemic alkalosis
The use of a NSAID with a loop diuretic will greatly ______ the efficacy of the diuretic.
The major reason to use a loop diuretic is if the person has _______. What can cause this?
edema, CHF and ascites
What is another (smaller) reason to use furosemide. (other than for edema)?
to treat severe hypercalcemia (from a malignacy) remember, Loop diuretics cause you to excrete Ca
T or FL the use of furosemide can cause ototoxicity.
What could you do to detoxify a drug.
alkalize the urine by using acetazolamide
_____ is an osmotic diuretic.
Mannitol is used to ____ urine volume and ____ IOP.
decrease, lower. (tons of water is excreted)
_______ is similar to furosemide--it is a loop diuretic.
Ethacrynic acid
What drug would you use if the patient has pulmonary edema and needs a diiuretic?
Loop diuretics cause you to ___ the amount of Ca excreted into the lumen.
Name 3 contratindications for using a loop diuretic.
1- if they have gout
2- difficulty breathing
3- high blood pressure
Loop diuretics cause ____ uric acid in the blood.
ototoxicity is a side-effect of _____.
loop diuretics
Thiazide diuretics _____ the amount of Ca excretion.
Name a thiazide diuretic.
HCTZ (hydrochlorothiazide)
What is the drug of choice if a patient has high blood pressure?
____ is similar to HCTZ--it is a thiazide.
Can HCTZ cause hyperlipidemia?
What is the name of the channel in the CCT that increases Na reabsorption and K excretion?
amiloride-sensitive channel
____ is similar to amiloride.
What drug is commonly used with HTCZ?
Describe the action of amiloride.
It blocks the channel Preventing Na reaborption and K excretion.
YOu need to add amiloride in all cases of _____.
Potassium wasting
What drug would you use if the patient has hyperaldosteronism.
Gynomastica and hirsutism are side effects of what drug? why?
spironolactone. It looks like testosterone
In an emergeny situation, what diuretic is bast to use?
loop diuretics--they are more potent

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