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AP Bio C 16


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incorporation of external genetic information
viruses that repdoduce by infcting a cell and commandeering that cell's metabolic machinery
Hershey and Chase
discorverd that DNA was the inhertited genetic material
ratio of nitrogenous bases is A=T and C=G
Watson and Crick
discorverd the double helix structure of DNA
semiconservative model
daughter DNA strands split and the new parent DNA strands consists of one old strand and one new strand of DNA
origin of replication
sites where replication begins
DNA polymerases
elongates DNA strand and
adds nucleotides to the 3' end of a growing strand
antiparallel nature
-two strands of DNA run in oppsite direcions
direction DNA is replicated
5--->3 prime end
leading strand
is the DNA strand at the opposite side of the replication fork from the lagging strand. It goes from a 3`-5` direction
lagging strand
the DNA strand at the opposite side of the replication fork from the leading strand. It goes from 3' to 5'
enzyme that joins 10 RNA nucleotides to form the primer needed to start the chain
‚¨ĘThe initial nucleotide chain
enzymes that unwind the helix and separate the parent strand at replication forks
single strand binding proteins
proteins that keep the separate DNA strands apart
how is DNA proofread?
during replication, enzymes proofread DNA for errors
mismatch repair
process that repairs errors in DNA replication
-involves DNA polymerases
excision repair
DNA replication reparir where the damaged strand is cut out by nucleases and the gap is correctly filled
- DNA polymerases and ligases fill the gap
how can DNA molecules be altered?
reactive chemicals, radioactive emissions, x-rays, and UV light
multiple repetitions of a short nucleotide sequence at the end of chromosomes
- protect an organism's genes from being shortenend during successive DNA replications.
shortening of telomeres
may limit cell division
enzyme of germ line cells which lengthens telomeres
Rosalyn Franklin
her X- ray photographs were what Watson and Crick used to indicate the helix structure
what attraction exists between nucleotides
Van du Waal attractions
what attraction exists between nucleotide base pairs?
hydrogen bond
Meselson and Stahl
confirmed the semiconservative model of DNA replication with labeled DNA and locations of the density bands
bacteriophage that infects the bacterium E.Coli
- used by Hershey and Chase to prove that DNA was the gentic material of a phage
DNA replication
the process of copying a double-stranded DNA strand.

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