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ens365 test 3 review


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Describe the structure of skeletal muscle from the muscle belly down to actin and myosin filaments
1. belly
2. fasiculi
3. fiber - sarcomere
4. fibrils
5. myofibrils
a. actin
b. myosin
surrounds individual muscle fibers
surrounds fasiculi
surrounds muscle belly
sharpy's fibers
connects tendon to periosteum
sheet of CT to provide support & stability
ex. IT band
A motor unit consists of a motor nerve and _________.
the motor end plate of the muscle fibers it innervates
Define the path a stimulus takes from the motor nerve to muscle contraction
motor nerve depolarization -> Ach released -> sarcolema depolarization -> t-tubules -> Ca++ released -> cross-bridges formed
The strength and type of muscle contraction is dependent on
a. # of fibers recruited
b. size of the axon
c. freq. of firing
Example of a parallel muscle
example of a unipennate muscle
flexor pollicus longus
example of of a bipennate muscle
example of a multipennate muscle
Advantages and Disadvantages of isometric exercise
+ use during immobilization
+ work muscle without jt movement
+ inexpensive/convenient

- only strengthening at a specific angle
advantages and disadvantages of isotonic exercise
+ strenghtening in full range of motion
+ difficult to cheat
+ substantial strength gains

- injury
- limited by weakest point in ROM
+ max effort throughout
+ various speeds
+ functional
+ used in research and diagnosis

- expensive
- requires training
- easy to cheat
Define agonist and antagonist
agonist - shortening of the prime mover

antagonist - opposing muscle group that is relaxing
Why tension is less at shortened or elongated muscle lengths
less cross bridge potential
With regards to the velocity or speed of contraction, as speed increases, force _______.
What does passive tension in the muscle represent?
8 factors affecting muscle function
1. type of joint/location
2. # of joints crossed
3. passive insufficiency
4. sensory receptors
5. fiber type
6. shape
7. innervention ration
8. muscle temp
a _______ injury involves repetitive trauma that does not allow for complete repair
Delayed Onset Muscle Soreness is caused primarily by _____ exercise and peaks _____ days post activity.
a. eccentric
b. 2-4
Describe the effects of immobilization on muscle tissue
1. decrease in sarcomere #
2. decrease in sarcomere length
3. increase and thickening of periomysium and endomysium
4. muscle atrophy
5. increase in collagen/CT ratio
differentiate between a muscle spasm and a trigger point
a. muscle spasm occurs by over-firing of the muscle spindle

b. trigger point is a microspasm in the sarcomere
gray matter
accumulation of cell bodies
white matter
accumulation of axons
anterior horn
efferent motor
posterior horn
periphereal afferent
found in spinal cord, integration "minibrain"
substantia gelatinosa
gray matter around the central canal
medulla oblongata
regulates vitals
reflex for eyes, head movements, responds to stimuli
voluntary skeletal muscle movement
PNS, SNS, hormones, water balance, temp regulation, appetite
integration center for all sensory info
intellegence, cognition, emotion
frontal lobe
motor function
parietal lobe
taste and cutaneus sensation
occipital lobe
temporal lobe
hearing and smell
corpus callosum
where 2 hemispheres join
specify the number of spinal nerve pairs for each of the following areas:
1. cervical
2. lumbar
4. sacral
5. coccygeal
1. 8
2. 12
3. 5
4. 5
6. 1
Compare and contrast the function of the sympathetic and parasympathetic nervous systems
1. SNS - fight or flight
2. PNS - rest and digest
what is the difference between nerve cells and glial cells?
a. nerve cells - transmitt, conduct stimulus
b. glial cells - provide nutrients and support
define the mechanism of saltatory conduction and its benefit
allows for faster transmission by insulating nerves with myelin
which type of efferent motor nerve is associated with the extrafusal muscle fibers? muscle spindle's intrafusal muscle fibers?
1. extrafusal - alpha efferent
2. muscle spindle's intrafusal - gamma efferent
Origin of impuls from the follwing afferent sensory nerves:
a. Ia (a-alpha)
b. Ib (a-alpha)
c. II (a-beta)
d. III (a-delta)
e. IV (c-fiber)
a. muscle spindle
b. GTO
c. secondary receptor in muscle spindle (mechanoreceptor)
d. changes in temp in skin
e. nocious stimuli
describe the functions of the muscle spindle and the golgi tendon organ
a. muscle spindle - senses changes in muscle lenght, tension, and position. reacts: contract or relax - recovery of movement

b. GTO - protective, senses tension in musculotendonus junction - passively inhibits motor nerve
reseased at the synapse to stimulate sarcolema and start cross bridge cycle
nervous system and cardio - metabolic rate
endogenus opiate, increases pain threshold, breaks down bradykynin
blocks 1st and 2nd order.. "presynaptic" inhibition
substance p
in response trauma - trigers pain
stimulated by descending, stimulates enkephalin neuron
stimulated by descending, inhibits 2nd order, closes gate
effects sleep/wake cycl, used to adjust to jet lag
where the impulse is originating and going for:
a. first order neuron
b. second order neuron
c. third order neuron
d. corticospinal tract
e. dorsolateral tract
f. motor nerve
a. from invironment to spinal cord
b. spinal cord to brain
c. brain to specific section of brain
d. brain to medulla
e. down length of spinal cord to motor nerve
f. out to muscle
A-beta afferent
a. large - fast transmission
b. mechanoreceptor
c. touch, pressure, vibration
A-delta afferent
a. small - slower
b. thermoreceptor
c. changes in temp
C Fiber
a. smallest - slowest
b. nociceptor
c. pain/noxious
ruffini end organs
sense stretch
change in joint position
change in fluid pressure
senses compression
meissners corpuscles
found in skin, sensitive to touch
pacinian corpuscles
sense high freq. vibration, acceleration and high velocity changes
pathway the brachial plexus takes from the neck region down to the arm
neck -> beneith clavica -> through armpit -> terminal branches in arm
discuss the aspects of nerve healing and the ability of a nerve to re-generate
- involvement of cell body: can't regenerate
- involvement of axon: regenerate 3-4mm a day
acute pain
sudden onset, shorter duration, from trauma
chronic pain
slow onset, long duration, psych/emotional cycle
referred pain
perceived in an area other than injured
radiculr pain
radiating pain, follows course of nerve
which area of the spinal cord is inhibited with all three levels of pain control
enkephalin - inhibits transmission cell

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