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Final Exam Chem. Notes


undefined, object
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Anything that has mass and occupies space.
The measurement of the amount of matter in an object.
a meaurement of the gravitational force acting on an object.
How do we determine the mass of something?
We weigh it.
The capacity for doing work.
What are examples of energy?
Physical Properties-
Characteristics that can be observed or measured without changing the composition of matter.
What are examples of Physical Properties?
-Liquid vs. Solid
Chemical Properties-
Characteristics of matter when attempting to change it into something new.
What are examples of chemical Properties?
-The ability for paper to burn
Physical Changes-
Alterations matters undergoes without changing the composition.
What are examples of Physical Changes?
-Changing the siz of a piece of paper (cutting it, crumpling it)
-Ice melting
Chemical Changes-
Alterations matter undergoes that involve changes in composition.
What are examples of Chemical Changes?
-Burning of paper
-Release of new material (gas)
Scientific Model-
explanation for observed behavior in nature.
Model of Matter-
Designed to explain observed properties of gases.
What are the small particles called in which matter is composed of?
Smallest unit of a pure substance that has the properties of that substance.
Limit of chemical subdivision for matter.
Monoatomic Molecule-
Contains only one atom.
Polyatomic Molecules-
Contains 2 or more atoms.
Homoatomic Molecules-
Contains only 1 kind or type of atom
Heteroatomic Molecules-
Contains 2 or more kind or type of atom
Pure substance consisting of the same molecules
What are examples of an element?
Pure substance consisting of more than one molecule
What is an example of a compound?
-Carbon Dioxide O-C-O
What type of molecules are Elements?
Either Monoatomic or Polyatomic; always homoatomic
What type of molecules are compounds?
Always Polyatomic; always heteroatomic
List the differences between a Mixture and a Pure Substance-
-Variable Composition
Pure Substance:
-Constancce Composition
-Properties vary with composition
Pure Substance:
-Unique set of physical properties
-Serperably by physical methods into 2 or more pure substances
Pure Substances:
-Not seperable into simpler substances by physical methods.
Homogeneous Matter-
Has uniform physical and chemical properties throughout.
homogeneous mixture of 2 or more pure substances
Heterogeneous Matter-
has appearance and properties that are not the same throughout.
Examples of a Heterogeneous Mixture-
Examples of a Homogeneous Mixture-
-Sugar Water
What is the basic unit for length?
Meter, m
1 km= ?m
10 dcm= ?m
100 cm= ?m
1000 mm= ?m
1000 m
1 m
1 m
1 m
What is the formula for area?
Area= Length x Width
What is the formula for volume?
Volume= Length x Length x Length
1 mL= ?cc
1 cc
1 teaspoon= ?mL
5 mL
What is the basic unit for mass?
Kiogram, Kg
1 Kg= ?lbs.
1 Kg= ?g
1 g= ?mg
2.2 lbs
1000 grams
1000 mg
What is the formula for converting Celsius to Farenheit?
C= 100/180 (F-32)
What is the formula for converting Farenheit to Celsius?
F= 9/5 (C) + 32
What is the basic unit for energy?
Joule, (j)
What is the formula for converting celsius to kelvin?
C= K-273
What is the formula for converting kelving to celsius?
K= C+273
1 cal of energy is needed to do what?
heat 1g or water by 1 degree C
What is the formula for calculating percent?
Percent= Part/Total X 100
What is the formula for calculating density?
Density= Mass/Volume
Charge of a Proton-
Positively Charged
Charge of a Neutron-
Charge of an Electron-
Negatively Charged
What is the atomic number?
The number of protons
What is the Mass Number?
The sum of the neutrons and protons
Atoms with the same atomic number but different mass #'s
In a neutral atom, the number of protons = What?
the number of electrons
The number of protons is the what?
atomic number
Where is the number of protons, or atomic number located on an element?
Lower left corner
The sum of the neurtons and protons is what?
the mass number of an element
Atomic Weight-
relative masses of atoms
Molecular Weights-
derived from the atomic weights and the molecular formula
What is Avogadro's Number and what does it represent?
-6.02 x 10 23
-Represents one mole
How is chemical behavior determine
primarily by the number of electrons.
Periodic Law-
When elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic numbers, elements with similar properites will occur at regular intervals.
Bohr Atom-
-Electrons orbit the nucleus in defined orbits of specific energies.
-Electrons can change orbits by absorbing or releasing energy.
Atomic Orbitals-
volumes of space in which electrons of the same energy move.
Atomic orbitals occur in groups called?
Subshells occur in groups called?
Hund's Rule-
electrons will not join other electrons in an orbital if an empty orbital of the same energy is available.
Pauli Exclusion Principle-
only electrons spinning in opposite directions can simultaneously occupyt the same orbital.

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