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Radiology II


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What is pattern recognition? Why is it useful?
Identification of different
varieties (or patterns) of radiographic abnormality-> generating a useful list of diagnostic possibilities for the patient’s
What is the basic structural unit that aids in pattern recognation?
Secondary pulmonary lobule
What 2 large categories is the lung divided into?
air spaces and interstitium.
- dx processes are divided into air space & interstitial dx
What are 5 characteristics of air space dxs?
1. Lobar/segmental distribution
2. Poor Margination
3. Coalescence
4. Air bronchogram/air alveologram
5. Butterfly or batwing pattern
What is Lobar/segmental distribution?
- Air space dx characteristic
- large process of lung opacified->majority of volume involved->majority of lobules involved
What is Poor Margination?
Both normal and abnormal lung are superimposed on one another, also contributing to the ill-defined margins to the
What is Coalescence?
- Air space processes tend to begin in an area, then expand, filling neighboring
alveolar spaces with the disease process.
- pores of Kohn, Canals of Lambert, conducting airways all are passages
What is Air bronchogram/air alveologram?
Bronchi & bronchioles are surrounded by fluid filled alveoli-> rounded lucencies
What is Butterfly or Batwing pattern?
Tendency of some air space
processes (mainly edema) to cause opacity in the perihilar regions (larger central distribution, less peripherally)
What are interstitial dx characteristics? (5)
1. Kerley's Line
2. Honeycombing
3. Peribronchial/perivascular thickening
4. Hilar haze
5. Subpleural edema
What is Kerley's line?
Linear densities on the chest radiograph result from fluid or other pathologic
process within the interlobular septae.
What is Honeycombing?
- Pulmonary destruction from interstitial fibrosis.
- appearance of a white ring with lucent center
What is Peribronchial/perivascular thickening?
Any accumulation of fluid or other pathologic process in the axial connective tissue sheaths will "silhouette" the
margins of these structures, making them hazy and ill defined.
What is Hilar haze?
Poor definition of the central pulmonary vessels
What is Subpleural Edema?
Accumulation of fluid or other pathologic process deep to the visceral pleural surface-analogous to a gigantic Kerley’s line.
What account for the majority of nodular patterns?
primary or metastatic malignancy and granulomatous
processes (infectious and non-infectious) will account for the vast majority of the nodular patterns seen on chest films.
Which nodules are sharply defined?
Metastic nodules except for hypervascular lesions
Granulomatous infections (esp chronic form)

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