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AP Bio c 20


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genetic engineering
the direct manipulation of genetic material for practical purposes
use of living organisms to manufacture desirable products
recombiant DNA
formed combination of genes from differernt organisms and species
gene cloning
preparation of multiple identical copies of pieces of DNA
restriction enyzmes
protect bacteria from the DNA of viruses or other bacteria by cutting up foreign DNA
restriction site
recognition sequence that restriction enzymes look for
usually a symmetrical sequence of four to eight nucleotides running in opposite directions on the two strands.
sticky ends
unbound ends left after endonucleases cut the DNA.
restriction fragment
fragment cut from the restriction site.
DNA ligase
enzyme uses to seal the sticky ends of DNA together,
cloning vectors
DNA molecules that can move foreign DNA into a cell and replicate there
expression vector
-small DNA molecule that is used to introduce and express a specific gene into a target cell.
- contains promoter
complementary DNA
artificial chromosomes
man made chromosomes constructed to carry foreign DNA and contain an origin for DNA replication,a centromere,e, and two telomeres.
method in which electric pulse briefly opens holes in the plama membrane through which DNA can enter, injection into cells using needles, or firing into plant cells using a gene gun.
genomic library
stores genes used for cloning containing recombinant plasmids.
polymerase chain reaction
produces billions of copies of a section of DNA
gel electrophoresis
process that uses electrodes to separate nucleic acids and proteins according to charge, shape, and charge.
Southern hybridization
-DNA cut with restriction enzyme
-fragments are separated on a gel and blotting
- single-stranded DNA are added and hybridize with complementary DNA sequences
restriction fragment length polymorphosims
-fragments of noncoding DNA sequences
in situ hybridization
where chromosome staining show the location of the gene
Human Genome Project
- project the map the the human genome
- linkage, physical mapping, and DNA sequencing
How do you map a large genome?
1. map several thousand genetic markers( RFLPs or genes)
how do you do physical mapping?
determine the actual distance between markers
1. cut DNA at restriction fragments
chromosome walking
probe made from the 3' end of a known sequence is used to search the first library for the next overlapping fragment
Sanger Method
1. mix single-stranded restriction fragment + dideozyribonucleotides
2. separate flourescently tagged strands through gel electrophoresis
3. nucleotide sequence is read from the sequence of bands
DNA microarray assays
indicate relative amounts of mRNA in a tissue
-compare gene expression in canverous and noncancerous tissues
in vitro mutagenesis
-method to find fuction of unkown genes
-changeds are made to a cloned gene, the gene is returned to the cell, and changes in physiology
antisnese nucleic acid
-single stranded DNA or RNA molecule
- prevent disease by blocking the translation of mRNA
DNA fingerprint
RRLP analysis
simple tandem repeats or STRs
variations in the number of tandem repeated base sequences
- forensic DNA
transgenic organisms
animals that contain gene from other species
Ti plasmid
integrates a segment of it DNA into the plant chromosomes
hybridization probe
a short piece of DNA that is denatured (by heating) into single strands and then radioactively labeled
cDNA library
-copies of mRNA
reverse transcribed mRNAs are collectively known as the library

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