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Definitions and lists for MGMT 4030 Exam 4


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Define Leadership.
Influencing employees to voluntarily pursue organizational goals.
Define Leader Trait.
Personal characteristic that differentiates leaders from followers.
Define Leadership Prototype.
Mental representation of the trits and behaviors possessed by leaders.
Gender and Leadership
Females typically receive higher evaluations of leader effectiveness from subordinates than men. Also, females are more likely to use a transformational style, while males are more likely to use a transactional style.
What are the styles on the Leadership Grid?
Impoverished management, country club management, authority-compliance, middle-of-the-road management, and team management.
Which style on the Leadership Grid is the best?
Team management.
What is the premise upon which Fideler's Contingency Model is based?
Leaders have one dominant leadership style that is resistant to change.
Define Contigency factors of leadership.
Variables that cause one style of leadership to be more effective than another.
Define Follower Readiness.
Follower’s ability and willingness to complete a task.
Define Transactional Leadership.
Focuses on clarifying employees' roles and providing rewards contingent on performance.
Define Transformational Leadership.
Transforms employees to pursue organizational goals over self-interests.
What are the Four "I"s of Transformational Leadership?
Inspirational Motivation, Idealized Influence, Individualized Consideration, and Intellectual Stimulation
Define Inspirational Motivation.
Involves establishing an attractive vision of the future, the use of emotional arguments, and exhibition of optimism and enthusiasm.
Define Idealized Influence.
Sacrificing for the good of the group, being a role model, and displaying high ethical standards.
Define Individualized Consideration.
Providing support, encouragement, empowerment, coaching, and mentoring.
Define Intellectual Stimulation.
Encouraging employees to challenge the status quo and seek innovative and creative solutions to organizational problems.
Define Leader Member Exchange.
Focuses on the quality of relationships between managers and subordinates as opposed to the behaviors or traits of either leaders or followers.
What are the 2 types of the Leader Member Exchange Model?
In-group vs. Out-group
Define In-group exchange.
A partnership characterized by mutual trust, respect, and liking.
Define Out-group exchange.
A partnership characterized by a lack of mutual trust, respect, and liking.
Define Shared Leadership.
Simultaneous, ongoing, mutual influence process in which people share responsibility for leading.
Define Servant Leadership.
Focuses on increased service to others rather than to oneself.
What are the 2 traits unique to Level 5 Leaders?
Humility and a fearless will to succeed.
Define an Organization.
System of consciously coordinated activities of two or more people.
Define Organization Chart.
Graphic representation of formal authority and division of labor.
Define Unity of Command Principle.
Each employee should report to a single manager.
Define Span of Control.
The number of people reporting directly to a given manager.
What is the Difference between Staff Personnel and Line Managers?
Staff personnel: provide research, advice, and recommendations to line managers.
Line managers: have authority to make organizational decisions.
Define Closed-system.
A relatively self-sufficient entity.
Define Open-system.
An organism that must constatnly interact with its environment to survive.
Define Bureaucracy.
Max Weber's idea of the most rationally efficient form of organization.
What are the 4 factors that make bureaucracies the epitome of efficiency?
Division of Labor, a hierarchy of authority, a framework of rules, and administrative impersonality.
What are the 4 General Effectiveness Criteria?
The goal accomplishment approach, the resource acquisition approach, the internal processes approach, and the strategic constituencies approach.
Which approach is appropriate when “goals are clear, consensual, time-bounded, and measurable?"
The goal accomplishment approach.
Which approach is appropriate when inputs have a traceable effect on results or output?
The resource acquisition approach.
Which approach is appropriate when organizational performance is strongly influenced by specific processes?
The internal processes approach.
Which approach is appropriate when powerful stakeholders can significantly benefit or harm the organization?
The strategic constituencies approach.
Define Mechanistic organizations.
Rigid, command-and-control bureaucracies.
Define Organic organizations.
Fluid and flexible network of multitalented people.
What organization is better suited for a stable environment?
What organization is better suited for a dynamic environment?
Define Centralized decision making.
Top managers make all key decisions.
Define Decentralized decision making.
Lower-level managers are empowered to make important decisions.
Define External forces of change.
Originate outside the organization.
Define Internal forces of change.
Originate inside the organization.
What are the 3 examples of Internal forces of change?
Low job satisfaction, High turnover, Low productivity.
What are the 3 steps in Lewin's Change Model?
Unfreezing, Changing, Refreezing.
What is Unfreezing?
⬢Creates the motivation to change
⬢Encourages the replacement of old behaviors and attitudes with those desired by management
⬢Entails devising ways to reduces barriers to change
What is Changing?
⬢Provides new information, new behavioral models, or new ways of looking at things
⬢Helps employees learn new concepts or points of view
⬢Role models, mentors, experts, benchmarking results, and training are useful mechanisms to facilitate change
What is Refreezing?
⬢Helps employees integrate the changed behavior or attitude into their normal way of doing things
⬢Positive reinforcement is used to reinforce the desired change
⬢Coaching and modeling help reinforce the stability of change
Define Benchmarking.
Process by which a company compares its performance with that of high-performing organizations.
What are the 3 main components of a Systems Model of Change?
Inputs, Target Elements of Change, and Outputs
Define Mission Statement.
Summarizes "why" an organization exists.
Define Strategic Plan.
A long-term plan outiling actions needed to achieve planned results.
Define Target Elements of Change.
Componenets of an organization that may be changed.
Which level of targeted change is the most difficult to change?
Organizational level.
Define Organizational Development.
A set of techniques or tools that are used to implement organizational change.
Define Resistance to Change.
Emotional/behavioral response to real or imagined work changes.
Define Learning Organization.
Proactivley creates, acquires, and transfers knowledge throughout the organization.
Remember that all organizations have some level or organizational learning, but not all organizations are learning organizations.
Define Learning Capabilities.
The set of core competencies and interal processes that enable an organization to adapt to its environment.
Define Learning Modes.
The various ways in which organizations attempt to create and maximize their learning.

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