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Micro Respiratory system review


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What is the most common cause of pharyngitis
Viruses are the most common cause of pharyngitis (60%), ie rhinoviruses, adenovirus, coronavirus
What are less-common causes of pharyngitis
Corynebacterium diphtheriae, Chlamydia pneumoniae, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, influenza, herpes simplex virus, EBV, Mycoplasma, and Bordetella pertussis
common cold, inflammation of nasal passages
inflammation of the oral cavity. Multiple lesions of the oral mucosa that may extend to the tongue lips and face
throat and neck pain, fever, inflammation and swelling of the epiglottis; difficulty swallowing, talking. Inspiratory stridor
sore throat with erythma and swelling. May also see
exudate and petechial hemorrhages (more common with bacterial infections).
vesicles that can rupture and form ulcers (viral, in particular herpes simplex)

“thrush”- plaques of c
Pharyngitis and tonsillitis
abrupt onset or may develop over hours or a few days as a result of spread from the URT. Variable fever, inspiratory stridor, hoarse phonation, barking cough
Laryngitis, or its more severe form, croup
extension of infection from the subglottic laryngeal structures (including the vocal cords) to the trachea and bronchi where it is associated with a deeper, more severe cough that may produce chest pain, sputum, and when vocal cord involvement is severe,
Laryngotracheitis, laryngotracheobronchitis
Primary infection or spread from upper respiratory tissues. Cough, variable fever, and sputum production that is often clear at the onset but may become purulent. Course bubbling rhonchi on auscultation of the chest with a stethoscope as a result of infl
infection of the lung parenchyma that develops over hours to days that runs a natural course lasting days to weeks. Onset may be gradual or acute. Cough and sputum +/- blood. Later labored or difficulty breathing, rapid respiratory rate, cyanosis (someti
Acute pneumonia
develops over weeks to months and may last weeks or Cough, sputum, later with loss and night sweats
Chronic pneumonia
Usually a consequence of acute or chronic pneumonia; frequently follows aspiration pneumonia-persistent fever, and production of foul-smelling sputum is common. Multiple abscesses may be a consequence of a blood-borne infection.
Lung abcess
purulent infection of pleural space that usually occurs by continguous spread of bacteria from the infected lung.

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