# TAKS Exit Level Science Objective 5

## Terms

undefined, object
copy deck
What is speed?
distance traveled divided by time traveled
What is momentum?
mass times velocity or speed
What is acceleration?
change in speed or velocity; can be increase in speed or change in direction
What is power?
work done or energy transfered per unit of time
What is work?
force times the distance through which the work is performed
What is the formula for speed?
distance / time
What is the formula for momentum?
mass x velocity
What is the formula for acceleration?
(final velocity - initial velocity)/change in time
What is the formula for work?
force x distance
What is the formula for power?
work/time
During an investigation, students accelerated boxes using different forces and then determined the masses of the boxes. What is the mass in grams of a box that requires 0.1 newton to make it accelerate 2 m/s2?
50 g
A ball moving at 30 m/s has a momentum of 15 kg*m/s. The mass of the ball is ___.
0.5 kg
How much work is performed when a 50 kg crate is pushed 15 m with a force of 20 N?
300 J
If a force of 100 newtons was exerted on an object and no work was done, the object must have ____.
remained motionless
A mechanic used a hydraulic lift to raise a 12, 054 N car 1.89 m above the floor of a garage. It took 4.75 s to raise the car. What was the power output of the lift?
4796 W
An advertisement claims that a certain truck has the most powerful engine in its class. If the engine has more power, which of the following can the truck's engine do, compared to every other engine in its class?

A. produce fewer emissions
C. Perform work faster
What is Newton's First Law of Motion?
Any object in motion will stay in motion, and any object at rest will stay at rest, until it is acted on by an unbalanced force. This law is also referred to as the law of inertia.
What is Newton's Second Law of Motion?
The net force on an object equals the object's mass multiplied by its acceleration (force - mass x acceleration)
What is Netwon's Third Law of Motion?
when one object exerts a force on a second object, the second object exerts an equal but opposite force on the first object
A frog leaps from its resting position at the lake's bank onto a lily pad. If the frog has a mass of 0.5 kg and the acceleration of the leap is 3 m/s2, what is the force the frog exerts on the lake's bank when leaping?
1.5 N
The ratio of the output force (acting on a load) produced by a machine to the applied effort (the input force).
What is a lever?
A simple machine consisting of a rigid bar pivoted on a fixed point and used to transmit force, as in raising or moving a weight at one end by pushing down on the other.
A projecting handle used to adjust or operate a mechanism.
What is a gear?
a part, as a disk, wheel, or section of a shaft, having cut teeth of such form, size, and spacing that they mesh with teeth in another part to transmit or receive force and motion; an assembly of such parts.
What is a wheel and axle?
a simple machine consisting, in its typical form, of a cylindrical drum to which a wheel concentric with the drum is firmly fastened: ropes are so applied that as one unwinds from the wheel, another rope is wound on to the drum.
What is a pulley?
A simple machine consisting essentially of a wheel with a grooved rim in which a pulled rope or chain can run to change the direction of the pull and thereby lift a load.
What is a ramp?
an inclined surface connecting two levels
What is efficiency?
% efficiency = (work output/work input) x 100
(think waves) What is interference?
the process in which two or more light, sound, or electromagnetic waves of the same frequency combine to reinforce or cancel each other, the amplitude of the resulting wave being equal to the sum of the amplitudes of the combining waves.
(think waves) What is polarization?
A process or state in which rays of light exhibit different properties in different directions, especially the state in which all the vibration takes place in one plane
(think waves) What is reflection?
the return of light, heat, sound, etc., after striking a surface
(think waves) What is refraction?
the change of direction of a ray of light, sound, heat, or the like, in passing obliquely from one medium into another in which its wave velocity is different
(think waves) What is resonance?
the state of a system in which an abnormally large vibration is produced in response to an external stimulus, occurring when the frequency of the stimulus is the same, or nearly the same, as the natural vibration frequency of the system
What is potential energy?
the energy of a body or a system with respect to the position of the body or the arrangement of the particles of the system
What is kinetic energy?
the energy of a body or a system with respect to the motion of the body or of the particles in the system
What is the law of conservation of energy?
the principle that in a system that does not undergo any force from outside the system, the amount of energy is constant, irrespective of its changes in form
What is convection?
the transfer of heat by the circulation or movement of the heated parts of a liquid or gas
What is conduction?
the transfer of heat between two parts of a stationary system, caused by a temperature difference between the parts
the process in which energy is emitted as particles or waves; the complete process in which energy is emitted by one body, transmitted through an intervening medium or space, and absorbed by another body.
How much heat is lost by 2.0 grams of water if the temperature drops from 31 degrees C to 29 degrees C? The specific heat of water is 4.184 J/g*degrees C.
16.7 J
Heat convection occurs in gases and liquids. Heat convection does not occur in solids because solids are unable to ___.

A. absorb heat by vibrating
B. transfer heat by fluid motion
C. emit radiation by reflecting light
D. exchan
B. transfer heat by fluid motion
What is the formula for kinetic energy?
1/2 (mass x velocity2)
What is the formula for the velocity of a wave?
frequency x wavelength
What is the formula for electrical power?
voltage x current
What is the formula for current?
voltage divided by resistance
WHat is the formula for electrical energy?
power x time (also equals work)

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