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Developmental Exam Language, Adolesence, Parenting


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Learning Perspective basics and who
Selective Reinforcement (skinner), Imitation/observational learning (Bandura) modeling
Problems with Learning Perspective

1)little support for parents role in shaping syntax since they correct context not gramm. correctness. 2)novel statements of children (condense sentences to conform to their level of grammatical competence)
support of learning perspective

1 children speak language of parents 2 amount of lexical input related to children's vocab development 3 the more conversational parents are, the more advanced lang development is.
Nativist Approach who and what (biologically programmed to develop lang)PC
Pinker- lang develops spontaneously without conscious effort/formal instruction
Chomsky: children have a LAD
Innate knowledge of grammar allows children to: 4 things pdou
1 percieve regularities in lang production 2 develop hypotheses about these regs 3 often overgeneralize rules 4 universal sequence of lang acq. 1st word 1st bday
nativist approach support
brain specialization, sensitive period hypoth (lennenberg) (immigrant test)or those largely deprived of normal lingustic environment, pidgin language
basic point of interactionist view
What is innate is not any specialized linguistic knowledge or processing skills but a sophisticated brain that matures very slowly and predisposes children to develop similar ideas at about the same age-ideas that they are then motivated to express in speech
communication strategies of caregivers (environmental supports) CMEDR
conversational speech, motherese, expansion, direct interaction, recasting
problems with Nativist approach OD
other young animals can make important phonemic distinctions too, doesnt explain how LAD works, but more a description of lang acq
Bergevin etc say by the time adols enter adulthood they should be AHB
autonomous and emotionally regulated, have a sense of their identity, and be able to form close relationships with both sexes
Steinberg research on parent-adolescent conflict
increase in bickering during early adolescence, increase in conflict being associated with reports of decreased closeness with parents and less time being spent together, changes in relationship-implacations for parental wellbeing, process of disequilibreation is followed by more egalitarian and less volatile relationships
Smetana and Gaines 99 report that conflicts commonly arise over issues such as:
choice of activities, household choses/obligations, and issues related to interpersonal relationships
conflict between parents and child may be more likely to occur when adol SOA
is experiencing symptoms of depression, other problems simultaneously, and when adolescent is an early-maturing girl
Larson in article found that
overall time spent with fam decreased through out teen years, little change in time spent alone with rents, decline in fam time not related to level of internal family conflict
decline in fam time was due to (in larson article)PG
the pull factors from the peer group for older adols, greater time spent alone for younger
key changes related to the development of autonomyGML
greater sense of individuation, more likely to de-idealize parents, less likely to feel dependent on their parents
children with authoritative parents MSSPC
more achievement oriented, self-reliant, socially responsible, prosocial, and co-operative
children of Permissive parents IASL
more impulsive, aggressive, self-centered, and lacking in independence
children of Authoritarian parents AP
at risk for rejection by peers, prone to negative moods
Child effects: Children with more difficult tempers elicit: AC
more arousal and distress from caregivers than less difficult children, more coercive strategies from parents
Genetically identical twins more similar in a variety of traits than fraternal like: SITP
susceptibility to disease, intelligence, temperment, personality attributes
determinants of parenting type PCC
personal and psychological resources of parents, characteristics of child, contextual sources of stress/support
Personal/Psychological resrouces of parents: developmental history APP
attachment relations, personality, psychological functioning- how you feel about yourslef
characteristics of the child TG
Temperment, goodness of fit between parents and child
Contextual sources of stress/support MES
marital relationships, employment status, and social networks

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