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tucker's notes on dr. senders lecture on head and neck development


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what develops in the face at 5 weeks?
frontal process
medial and lateral nasal processes
maxillary process
mandibular process
stomodeum (mouth primordium)
what are important points to know of adult anatomy of nose and mouth?
ala of nose
columella = what?
philtril lines and philtrum
cupid's bow of lip
what is vermillion?
is color! was he referring to lips?
what the hell is columella?
central axis of development?
what's the timing of development of the lips - what develops when?
4 or 5 weeks = nasal placode
5 weeks = lacrimal groove runs from mouth to eye
5.5 weeks = lacrimal groove becomes buried; eventually cord canalizes and becomes nasolacrimal duct
6 weeks = lips totally formed; nasal pits open
what the hell is a placode?
local thickening of endoderm
at what point does the primary palate fuse?
6 weeks
what structures fuse to form primary palate?
medial nasal processes
what the hell are palatine shelves?
secondary palates
where do palatine shelves initially form?
on either side of tongue - is potential source of problem later on
what's the relationship between tongue development and fusion of palatine shelves?
as tongue lowers, palatine shelves horizontalize and fuse anterior to posterior
in adults, what bones make up the hard palate?
maxillae and palatine bones
what's considered a minor cleft palate?
bifid uvula and/or submucosal cleft
what's considered a major cleft palate?
no palate
what's the "zipper" of cleft development refer to?
development of cleft anteriorly, moving posteriorly
why is a cleft lip often associated with a cleft palate?
because of the zipper development of cleft palate, if lip doesn't form, palate can't form because zipper didn't start
what's the foramen cecum represent, in terms of embryology?
is remnant of thyroglossal duct
where does the thyroglossal duct come from?
is path thyroid gland blazed through head and neck on way to adult location
started in TONGUE!
where does the thyroid gland come from embryologically?
is from invagination of tongue
what does the pouch of the 1st pharyngeal arch become?
auditory tubes
what does the pouch of the 2nd pharyngeal arch become?
apparently nothing special, just near palatine tonsils
what does the pouch of the 3rd pharyngeal arch become?
parathyroid glands and thymus
what does the pouch of the 4th arch become?
parathyroid glands and ultimobranchial bodies
what does the 1st aortic arch become?
part of maxillary artery
what are the aortic arches in embryological development?
are just blood vessels in pharyngeal arches
what does the 2nd aortic arch become?
stapedial artery
what does the 3rd aortic arch become?
parts of internal carotid artery
what does the 4th aortic arch become?
arch of aorta
what does the 5th aortic arch become?
pulmonary arteries
why do surgeons approach neck surgery on the left?
fear of cutting recurrent laryngeal nerve on right which may still be there from embryological development
where would CNs XI and XII apper in relation to fistulas?
inferior and/or posterior because they are not arch derivatives, and therefore are not really around fistulas which come from arch development problems
fistulas are usually in what structural relation to more caudal arches?
superior and anterior - caudal refers to things closer to "tail"
what's the relationship of a 2nd arch fistula to
a. sternocleidomastoid m.
c. CN IX or nerve of third arch
d. internal carotid = artery of third arch
e. palatine tonsils
a. anterior to sternocleidomastoid
b. superior to CN XII
c. superior to CN IX
d. anterior to internal carotid
e. near palatine tonsils
basically all this stuff is below the 2nd arch except for palatine tonsils
where would a 3rd arch fistula be in relation to:
a. sternocleidomastoid m.
c. CN IX
d. CN X or superior laryngeal nerve
e. piriform sinus in larynx
a. anterior to sternocleidomastoid m.
b. superior to CN XII
d. superior to CN X or superior laryngeal nerve
e. near piriform sinus in larynx
what structure must develop from 3rd arch given relationship to fistulas of 3rd arch?
piriform sinus, larynx
what structure must develop from 2nd arch given fistulas from 2nd arch?
palatine tonsils
what does the pierre-robin sequence refer to?
set of malformations that result from tongue not having enough room to drop
symptoms include:
1. small jaw
2. cleft palate

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