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Chapter Nine Motivation, Emotion, and Human Sexuality


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Needs or desires that energize and direct behavior toward a goal.
All the processes that initate, direct, and sustain behavior.
intrisic motivation
The desire to behave in a certain way because it is enjoyable or satisfying in and of itself.
An external stimulus that motivates behavior (for example, money or fame)
extrinsic motivation
The desire to behave in a certain way in order to gain some external reward or to avoid some undesirable consequence.
drive-reduction theory
A theory of motivation suggesting that biological needs create internal states of tension or arousal-called drives-which organisms are motivated to reduce.
An internal state of tension or arousal that is brought about by an underlying need and that an organism is motivated to reduce.
The natural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state in order to ensure physical survival.
A state of alertness and mental and physical activation.
arousal theory
A theory of motivation suggesting that people are motivated to maintain an optimal level of alertness and physical and mental activation.
stimulus motives
Motives that cause humans and other animals to increase stimulation when the level of arousal is too low (examples are curiosity and the motive to explore).
Yerkes- Dodson Law
The principle that performance on tasks is best when the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task: higher arousal for simple tasks, moderate arousal for tasks of moderate difficulty, and lower arousal for complex tasks.
Need for Self Actualization
Need to realize one's fullest potential.
Esteem Needs
Needs to achieve, to gain competence, to gain respect and recognition from others.
Belonging and Love Needs
Need to love and be loved; need to affiliate with others and be accepted
Safety Needs
Need for safety and security.
Physiological Needs
Need to satisfy the basic biological needs for food, water, oxygen, sleep, and elimination of bodily wastes.
Need for achievement (n Ach)
The need to accomplish something difficult and to perform at a high standard of excellence.
goal orientation theory
The view that achievement motivation depends on which of four goal orientations (mastery approach, mastery avoidance, performance approach, performance avoidance) an indvidual adopts.
mastery approach orientation
Study and engage in others behaviors so as to increase their knowledge and overcome challenges.
astery avoidance orientation
Exhibit whatever behaviors are neccessary to avoid failing to learn.
performance avoidance orientation
Measure their performance against that of other students and are motivated to work to the point where they are least equal to their peers.
performance approach orientation
Try to surpass the performance of their peers in an attempt to enhance their own sense of self worth.
basic emotions
Emotions that are unlearned and universal, that are reflected in the same facial expressions across cultures, and that emerge in children according to their biological timetable of development; fear, anger, digust, suprise, happiness, and sadness.
display rules
Cultural rules that dictate how emotions should generally be expressed and when and where their expression is appropriate.
facial-feedback hypothesis
The idea that the muscular movements involved in certain facil expressions produce the corresponding emotions (smiling makes someone fell happy).
emotional intelligence
The ability to apply knowledge about emotions to everday life.
parental investment
A term used by evolutionary psychologists to denote the amount of time and effort men or women must devote to parenthood.
sexual response cycle
excitement, plateau, orgasm, and resolution
sexual orientation
The direction of one's sexual preference- toward members of the opposite sex or toward ones own, or both

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