# Chem 101 test 4

## Terms

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Formula for
Celsius to Kelvin
c + 273
Formula for
grams to moles
grams = moles over grams to get moles
BOYLES LAW
P1V1=PfVf
ATM
1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr
mmHg
1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr
torr
1 atm= 760mmHg= 760 torr
measurable properties of a gas
volume, temp, pressure, amount
Kinetic molecular theory of gases (model gas behavior)
#1 of 5
1.A gas consists of small particles that randomly move w/ rapid velocities (they occupy the space of the container they are in)
volume=
space occupied by gas
L or mL
(V)
temperature=
average kinetic energy
Kelvin
(T)
amount of gas=
quanity
mole
(n)
pressure=
forces extracted over an area
atm, mmHg, torr
(P)
STP
Standard tempurature & Pressure
temp: 273K
pressure: 1 atm or 760 mmHg
volume: 1 mole or 22.4 L
Ideal Gas Law
PV=nRT
R=
62.4 L X mmHg over mole X K

0.0821 L X atm over mole X K
V1 over n1 = V2 over n2
DALTONS LAW
(PARTIAL PRESSURES)
P TOTAL = P1 + P2 +P3...
CHARLES LAW
V2= V1 x T2 over T1
COMBINED GAS LAW
V2= V1 x P1 over P2 x T2 over T1
GAY-LUSSAC'S LAW
P2= P1 x T2 over T1
MODEL GAS BEHAVIOR
"KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES"
#2 OF 5
The attractive forces between particles of gas can be neglected
MODEL GAS BEHAVIOR
"KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES"
#3 OF 5
The actual volume occupied by gas molecules is extremely small compared to the volume that the gas occupies.
MODEL GAS BEHAVIOR
"KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES"
#4 OF 5
The average kinetic energy (temp) of gas molecules is proportionate to the Kelvin tempurature
(add energy and the temp increases)
MODEL GAS BEHAVIOR
"KINETIC MOLECULAR THEORY OF GASES"
#5 OF 5
Gas particles are in constant motion, moving rapidly in straight paths
SOLUTE
Substance dissolved in another substance
SOLVENT
Substance in which another substance is dissolved
FILTER
porous material through which a liquid or gas is passed in order to seperate the fluid from suspended particulate matter
SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE
membrane that permits the passage of certain substances while blocking or retaining others
SOLUTION
homogeneous mixture in which the solute is made up of small particles ( like ions or molecules) that can pass through both filters and semipermeable membranes
PARTICLE TYPE= SMALL
SETTLING= NO
SEPERATION= NO
COLLOIDS
Homogeneous mixture that has particles that are moderately large. Can pass through filters but not semipermeable membranes.
PARTICLE TYPE= LARGE
SETTLING= NO
SPERATION= SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE ONLY
SUSPENSION
A mixture in which the solute particles are large enough and heavy enough to settle out of solution and can be retained by both filters and semipermeable membranes
PARTICLE TYPE= VERY LARGE/ VISIBLE
PARTICLE SETTLING= YES
SEPERATION= BOTH
GASES AS SOLUTIONS
FORM EASILY BECAUSE MOLECULES ARE FAR APART
LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS AS SOLUTIONS
HAVE TO HAVE INTERMOLECULAR ATTRACTION OR THEY WON'T MIX
ELECTROLYTE
Substance that produces ions when dissolves in water; conduct e-
"STRONG" dissociates completely; conducts e-
"WEAK" dissociates partially (molecules & ions) poor conductors of e-
NONELECTROLYTE
Solute that dissolves as wholes molecules (no ions)
SOLUBILITY
The maximum amount of a solute that can dissolve in exactly 110g of a solvent at a given tempurature
WHAT FACTORYS AFFECT SOLUBILTY?
1. POLARITY (solute/solvent)
2. TEMPURATURE
3. PRESSURE (gas solute/ liquid solvent)
Polarity as a factor affecting solubility
ionic and polar compounds are polar solvents

nonpolar covelants are nonpolar covelant solvents
Tempurature as a factor affecting solubility
solid solute/ liquid solvent:
--increase temp. and increase solubility
Gas solute/ liquid solvent:
--decrease temp and increase solubility
Pressure as a factor affecting solubility
(HENRY'S LAW)
Gas solute / liquid solvent:
Solubility of a gas in a liquid is directly related to the pressure of that gas above the liquid
--Inrease pressure and increase solubility
SOLUABLE SALTS
salt that dissolves in water as a solvent
INSOLUABLE SALTS
salt that does not dissolve in water as a solvent
CONCENTRATION
the measure of the amount of solute that is dissolved in a specific amount of solvent
UNSATURATED SOLUTION
A solution that contains less than the max. of solute that can be dissolved
SATURATED SOLUTIONS
a solution that contains the max. amount of solute that can be dissolves (at any given temp.)
Excess stays as a solute
Formula for solubility
Solubility= grams of solute over 100 grams of H2O
Concentrated
lots of solute per amount of solution
Diluted
small amount of solute per amount of solution
Dilution
process by which water is added to a solution to increase the volume & decrease the concentration

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