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Child Development Exam 3 2


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generally accepted definition of IQ:
-acting and thinking in ways that are goal directive and adaptive
-not normative
-allows different cultures to have specific criteria
is IQ culturally variable or not?
it is culturally variable- its measure is different- the competencies are different for each culture
What was Binet asked to do?
-create a test that determined which children should be in which grade
How did WWII contribute to the development of IQ tests?
-the army had to find out whihc jobs to give to which people
Binet believed intelligence was:
adaptation to the environment
how is IQ calculated?
mental age divided by chronological age
Who were the first people to develop IQ test?
Stamford and Binet
What did psychometricians believe about the degree of variation among IQ scores?
They believed there was a HIGH DEGREE of variation in IQs
What is the Information Processing view of intelligence?
Intelligence is a series of steps taken to solve problems through higher order thinking
psychometricians =
What are the 4 components of intelligence?
(according to IP theory ? - ask Anselmi if this is who made these categories)
1) Strategies
2)Knowledge base
3) Speed of information processing
4) metacognition
strategies =
effortful mental operations to accomplish a goal
knowledge base =
the amount of information you have

vocabulary for example
metacognition =
understadning of own basic cognitive processes
What do men tend to be better at in terms of intelligence?
speed of information processing
The 3 components of Sternberg's view of intelligence
1) componential/combonential/ analytic part

2) Contextual

3) Experiental Sub theory
the componential/analytic component of Sternberg's theory of Intelligence =
-refers to mechanisms of learning and analyzing


-how we encode info

-everything IP would say is essential
the contextual aspect of Sternberg's theory of intelligence =
-how we apply intelligence to everyday
experiential sub theory of Sternberg's theory of intelligence =
-how well we can deal with novelty of new tasks
Gardener's 5 criteria for an Intelligence:
1) You could tell there was an intelligence if when brain damage occured specific abilities were ruined

2) If you could show there wer geniuses or idiot savants

3) Evolutionary history and purpose of an intelligence

4) Can test skill with psychological measures -- defined in terms of system

5) They have developmental history-- has an endpoint -- DON'T GET THIS ONE
apply the theories of intelligence by 1) Gardener 2)Piaget 3) Psychometrics 4) Sternberg to a particular situation
intelligence does not equal
what are the experiential/environmental explanations for IQ
? see book
What are the genetic explanations for IQ
? look in book
what is the reciprocal explanation for IQ?
? look in book
most researchers believe this is the % of Intelligence that has a genetic/biological basis
30-80% so 50% basically
How do we study the impact that biology has on IQ? - 2 ways
1) twin studies
2) adoption studies
correlations for IQ for identical twins reared apart

what does this show?
- .86

-shows that biology has an important impact on IQ since in these instances the variable of environment is different
what is the correlation for IQ for siblings reared together:
- . 47
what is the correlation for identical twins reared apart?
- .72
what is the correlation for fraternal twins reared together?
- .60
what do twin and adoption studies show about the correlation between biology and IQ?
there is a positive correlation between genes and IQ

- ask Anselmi if this is true its my paraphrase
the less similar the genetic information the __________lower/higher_______ the correlation
how can the concept of niche picking be applied to the theory of IQ
? ask Anselmi
how can lerner's model be applied to the thoeries of IQ?
look up in book or ask anselmi
describe scarr and weisburg's study?1
-children from poor families adopted into middleclass families
-IQ scores were not identical to biological parents, but were not as high as adoptive parnts and siblings who were biological (biologically related to adopted children or to adoptive parents)
what did Scarr and Weisburg's study show?
- ?
what has been observed about the "headstart" program?
-We have seen improvements in IQ scroes through this program

-but the progress can be negated if the children are taken out of the program
what did the Absenian Project show?
are interventions effective in improving the IQs of disadvantaged children?
yes- its been shown that when children were given post natal care and mothers are taught to care for children- improvements were made
in what way does home environment improve IQ?
-evidence suggest that middle class parents value school achievement so the home environment impacts school achievement and therefore IQ score
how are IQ and school achievement correlated?
significance of intelligence test- validity, reliabilty, reliability, stability and predictability
stereotype threat- Claude Steele?
entity vs. incremental theory- Carol Dweck =
culture free and fair test =
3 parts of Intuitive view of Intelligence:
1) Practical Problem solving ability
2) Verbal ability
3) Social competance
Pratcical problem solving ability:
(Sternberg's triarchic view)
These skills include getting to the heart of a problem, interpreting information accurately, seeing all aspects of a problem and reasoning logically
Verbal Ability:
(Sternberg's triarchic view)
These skills include speaking and writing clearly and articulately, dealing effectively with people, having details knowlegde about a particular field, reading widely and with good comprhension, and having a good vocbulary
Social competence:

(Sternberg's triarchic view)
These skills include displaying curiosity, being sensitive to the needs and desires of others, being on time for appointments, having a social conscience, and making carefully considered and fair judgments
examples of questions Stanford and Binet may use to determine if a person has Information:
1) how many legs do you have
2) What must you do to make water freeze
3)Who discovered the North Pole
4)what is the capital of france?
Example of questions Stanford and Binet may use to determine if an individual can find similarities between objects
Whats similar about
1) a crayon and a pencil
2) tea and coffee
3) an inch and a mile
4)binoculars and a microscope
Examples of questions Stanford and Binet might use to determine an individuals arithmetic skills?
1) if you get one piece of candy and then another, how many do you have?
2) At 12 cents each, how much will 4 bars of soap cost?
3) If a suit sells for 1/2 the ticket price, what is the cost of a $120 suit
Example of questions to test comprehension in Stanford and Binet's study
1) Why do we wear shoes
2) What is the thing to do if you see someone drop her packages
3) In what two ways is a lamp better than a candle
4) Why are we tried by a jury of our peers
gardener's multiple intelligences:
1) Linguistic
2) Logical-mathematical
3) Spatial
4) Musical
5) Bodily- kinesthetic
6) Interpersonal
7) Intrapersonal
examples of spatial intelligence:
1) navigation
2) finding out how to fit suitcases into trunk of a car
examples of musical intelligence:
1) composing
2) singing/ playing
3) appreciating the structure of a piece
4) perfect pitch
used in relating to OTHERS
used in understanding OURSELVES
ask anselmi about the risk factors sheet
in intelligence packet
what doe spsychometrics do?
measures psychological traits
what does g represent in the psychometrician view of intelligence
g = all factors that go into intelligence
what is spearman's view of IQ
intelligence is a single domain general factor
what did gilford believe about intelligence?
- he had 18.0 unique factors that defined intelligence
what are 4 things that IQ are highly correlated with
1) verbal ability
2) perceptual speed
3) social class/ parents education
4) job success / socioeconomic status
What did McKlellan's retrospective study of Med students show?
that there was no difference in the success of med school students who had an A grade average v. a C grade average
what is the problem with the validity of IQ tests?
-IQ doesn't have a concrete definition so it is difficult to measure
is there stability across individuals in intelligence?
yes there is stability across individuals
What is Piaget's view of intelligence?`
-biological and psychological adaptation to environment as measured through acquisition of thinking at each stage

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