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Apologia Biology Module 5, 2nd Edition


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The transport of dissolved substances into cells
The breakdown of absorbed substances
The breakdown of food molecules with a release of energy
The removal of soluble waste materials
The removal of nonsoluble waste materials
The release of biosynthesized substances
Maintaining the status quo
Producing more cells
The study of cells
Cell wall
A rigid structure on the outside of certain cells, usually plant and bacteria cells
Middle lamella
The thin film between the cell walls of adjacent plant cells
Plasma membrane
The semipermeable membrane between the cell contents and either the cell wall or the cell's surroundings
A jellylike fluid inside the cell in which the organelles are suspended
Substances in which at least one atom has an imbalance of protons and electrons
Cytoplasmic streaming
The motion of cytoplasm in a cell that results in a coordinated movement of the cell's contents
The organelles in which nutrients are converted to energy
The organelle in animal cells responsible for hydrolysis reactions that break down proteins, polysaccharides, disaccharides, and some lipids
Non-membrane-bounded organelles responsible for protein synthesis
Endoplasmic reticulum
An organelle composed of an extensive network of folded membranes that performs several tasks within a cell
Rough ER
ER that is dotted with ribosomes
Smooth ER
ER that has no ribosomes
Organelles that store starches or oils
Organelles that contain pigments used in photosynthesis
Central vacuole
A large vacuole that rests at the center of most plant cells and is filled with a solution that contains a high concentration of solutes
Waste vacuoles
Vacuoles that contain the waste products of digestion
The process by which a cell engulfs foreign substances or other cells
Phagocytic vacuole
A vacuole that holds the matter which a cell engulfs
Pinocytic vesicle
Vesicle formed at the plasma membrane to allow the absorption of large molecules
Secretion vesicle
Vesicle that holds secretion products so that they can be transported to the plasma membrane and released
Golgi bodies
The organelles where proteins and lipids are stored and then modified to suit the needs of the cell
Spiral strands of protein molecules that form a tubelike structure
Nuclear membrane
A highly-porous membrane that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
A network of fibers that holds the cell together, helps the cell to keep its shape, and aids in movement
Fine, threadlike proteins found in the cell's cytoskeleton
Intermediate filaments
Threadlike proteins in the cell's cytoskeleton that are roughly twice as thick as microfilaments
A lipid in which one of the fatty acid molecules has been replaced by a molecule that contains a phosphate group
Passive transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane according to the dictates of osmosis or diffusion
Active transport
Movement of molecules through the plasma membrane (typically opposite the dictates of osmosis or diffusion) aided by a process that requires energy
Isotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is essentially equal to that of the cell which resides in the solution
Hypertonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is greater than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Collapse of a walled cell's cytoplasm due to a lack of water
The rupturing of a cell due to excess internal pressure
Hypotonic solution
A solution in which the concentration of solutes is less than that of the cell that resides in the solution
Activation energy
Energy necessary to get a chemical reaction going

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