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Anatomy Chapter 18


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The heart pumps continously about how many beats per minute? year?
70-80 bpmm
42,000,000 bpy
Where is the heart? how much does it weigh?
Behind the sternum centered slightly to the left.

Less than 1 pound.
What is a person's theoretical Max heart rate?
220 - Age
The outermost covering of the heart?
The muscle layer that does the actual contracting?
The internal ENDOTHELIAL tissue that allows blood to flow and PREVENTS LEAKS.
(Endothelial tissue)
What is the pericardium?
3 layers (fibrous pericardium, parietal pericardium, visceral pericardium)

The visceral pericardium is the EPICARDIUM.

The parietal pericardium= connects the fibrous pericardium superficial to it to the deeper visceral pericardium
what are the two cycles of the circulatory system?
Systemic cycle and pulmonary cycle
The right atrium collects ___________ blood from 3 veins called...
Deoxygenated blood from the systemic cicrcuit.

1.) Superior Vena Cava
2.) Inferior Vena Cava
3.) Coronary sinus
The right ventricle recoeves blood from the _____________ and pumps it to the ______________ via the ____________.
right atrium; pulmonary circuit; pulmonary trunk
The left ventricle recieves ____________ blood and passes blood to the _______________ through the _________.
oxygenated; right left ventricle; mitral (bicuspid valve)
the left ventricle forms the __________ of the heart. It pumps blood up and out to the body through the _____.
apex; aorta
What are the four valves in the heart? what movement do they allow?
-Right AV valve: from right atrium to right ventricle

-Pulmonary semilunar valve: from right ventricle to the lungs

-Left AV valve: from left atrium to left ventricle

-Aortic semilunar valve- from left ventricle to aorta.
What kind of valves are these? what is thier purpose?
Check valves;

to not allow blood to travel backward throught the heart.
What is the synchronization of valves?
AV Valves open simultaneously.

Semilunar valves open simultaneously

Both clases of valves open at differing times.
Right AV valve

- when heart relaxes does valve (close/open)
-when heart contracts does valve (close/open)
Tricuspid; open; closed
Pulmonary semilunar valve

- when heart relaxes does valve (close/open)
-when heart contracts does valve (close/open)
closed; open
Left AV valve

- when heart relaxes does valve (close/open)
-when heart contracts does valve (close/open)
bicuspid; open; closed
what protects the heart from opening to far?
Chordae tendenae
Recall that pressure =
Waht is normal, high, low blood pressure? What is the units?
High- 140/100 mmHg
Normal 120/80 mmHg
Low 100/60 mmHg
What is the 1st number of the blood pressure called? what pressure is it measuring?
Systolic pressure; pressure when the heart is contracted.
What is important to know about systolic pressure? Which is more important?
Systolic frequently changes therefore, diastolic pressure is more important.

Diastolic measures basal heart rate.
Blood pressure when the heart is relaxed?
The heart makes a characteristic "Lub-Dub" sound. What is the "Lub"? "Dub"?
Lub= closing of the AV valves

Dub= closing og the semilunar valves.
what is auscultation?
the sounds of the heart.
Systemic- out to the whole body

Pulmonary- segment that goes through the lungs for oxygenation

Coronary- part that oxygenates the tissue of the heart.
Which veins and arteries "MATCH UP" in the coronary cycle?
-anterior descending artery and great cardiac vein
-posterior descending artery and middle cardiac vein
- marginal artery matches up with the small cardiac vein
what is the largest vein that eventually leads back to the heart?
Coronary sinus
the coronary sinus deposits deoxygenated blood back into the ___________________ through the ______________.
right atrium; "hole to the coronary sinus"
What is the proper name of a heart attack?
myocardial infarction.
What causes a heart attack?
A thrombus that forms in a coronary artery that cuts oxygen to muscle (myocardial necrosis).
What happens to the tissue when blood is resupplied?
Nothing it remains dead.
Heart attacks are the leading cause of
mortality and morbidity in the U.S.
(500,000 - 700,000 per year)
When are males at risk? females?
Men are at risk since the age of 40. Women are less at risk. At age 70 they are about equally likely.
the space where blood can flow through in vessels is called?
What occurs in artheriosclerosis?
the lumen becomes reduced and pressure rises within the vessel.
What are ways to prevent/reduce risk for heart attacks?
-Eat healthy
-Quit smoking
What are surgical procedures against heartattacks?
Angioplasty- catheter is used to balloon clogged arteries and break apart thrombus.

Bypass surgery- taking a piece of a vein (ussually saphenous vein) and bypassing the clot by connecting a new tube to the heart.
Coronary Artery stent
usually paired with angioplasty.

A stiff tube placed in vessels to keep them open and made to slowly release anticoagulants and blood thinners.
The heartbeat orginates in the ______________ and (IS/IS NOT) extrinsically controlled.
heart; IS NOT extrinsically controlled.
What creates the electrical signal that will contract the heart?
THE Synoatrial node (SA Node) which resides in the right atrium.
After the signal from the SA node occurs the signal travels
down the internodal pathway to the atrioventricular node (AV node) which delays the relay down the interventricular septum.
Finaly through the interventricular septum the signal passes the
AV bundle then splits into right and left ventricles and innervates the heart at PERKINJE CELLS.

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