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Anatomy Chapter 17


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The circulatory system is broken down into two systems, what are they?
Circulatory and lymphatic systems.
What is the primary purpose of each the circulatory system and the lymphatic system?
Circulatory- oxygenate and nutrify the blood and circulate it out to peripheral tissue.

Lymphatic- fight diseases
What kind of tissue is blood?
Connective tissue
How much blood is found in the human body?
5 Liters (like a mustang)
Why is blood considered connective tissue?
because it originates from the mesenchyme embryonic tissue.
what percentage of a person's body is made up of BLOOD?
Arteries carry ________ blood _______ from the heart. Whereas veins, carry _________ blood __________ the heart.
oxygenated; away

deoxygenated; toward
Which are the only arteries and veins that do not adhere that rule?
Pulmonary arteries and veins.

Pulmonary arteries carry deoxygenated blood to the lungs (away from the heart). Wheras, pulmonary veins carry oxygenated blood toward the heart.
Thus what is the role to determine whether something is an artery or a vein?
If it travels away from the heart regardless of what is inside, it is an artery. If it travels toward the heart regardless of what is inside, it is a vein.
Is blood thicker than water?
Yes blood has a viscocity of 4.5 to 5.5. wheras water has a viscocity of 1.

Blood is about 5 times thicker.
Blood is a mixture of what two components?
Formed elements and Plasma.
What are formed elements? what do they include?
formed elements are blood cells. Cells that are found in the liquid blood.

They include erythrocytes (RBC), leukocytes (WBC) and platlets.
platelets can also be called ____________ their function is to ____________________.
thrombocytes; stop bleeding.
How many RBC are their in one cm3 or 1 mL?
over 5 million RBC in a mL making it THE MOST ABUNDANT of the formed elements.
What is the plasma?
plasma is straw-colored mostly water (90%) portion of the blood.
If plasma is 90% water what else is found in the plasma?
Sugars, amino acids, proteins, lipids, wastes (urea), oxygen, CO2, ions (Na+ , Cl-)
What is the hematocrit?
The portion of blood that consists of erytrhrocytes.
what portion of whole blood do each of the following make up?

-buffy coat (lueks + plates)
-hematocrit (RBC)
plasma= 55%
Buffy coat = < 1%
hematocrit = 45%
As we had previously said plasma is mostly water but contains some PROTEINS. What are the 3 classes od proteins in blood plasma?
What is the function of the plasma protein albumin?
Albumins are blood's thickening agent. As a result they help maintain blood pressure and prevent leaks.
Still, albumins leak out of the circulatory system, what is then done with them?
they are taken up by the lymphatic system and recycled to the circulatory system.
What are the three classes of the plasma protein GLOBULINS?
What is the purpose of both ALPHA and BETTA Globulins in the blood plasma?
To transport fats through the blood.
What is the purpose of Gamma Globulins in the blood plasma?
These are ANTIBODIES. they help us fight disease (antigens).
The third class of plama protein is fibrinogen which functions to...
work with platlets and help clot blood.
What is the purpose of RBC
To transport oxygen and nutrients to tissues in the body.
What is the shape of RBC? and why is it that way?
Biconcave disk- allows for effective oxygen absorption.
RBC shape allows for more oxygen absorption because it...
has a maximized surface area.
What are two unique facts about RBC?
they contain NO nucleus or mitochondria. Therefore they cannot reproduce.
How long do RBC live?
With respect to other cells, RBC live long (100-120 days)
Where are new RBC made?
the red bone marrow where they expel their nucleus and organelles before entering the blood stream.
What are the only "formed elements" that are TRULY CELLS (have nucleus, mitochondria and reproduce)?
What is the function of leukocytes? how do they achieve their function?
To destroy foreign invaders. To acheive this leukocytes engage in AMEOBOID MOVEMENT out of the blood vessel.
Leukocytes are barely visible even with a microscope. How do we see them and therefore classify them.

Some stain with visible granules (GRANULOCYTES) while some dont (AGRANULOCYTES)
How many categories of leukocytes are there? How many are granular vs. Agranular?
5 classes; 3 granular and 3 agranular.

-staining (color)
- lifetime
- phagocytic/ non-phagocytic


SHORT (6 hours)


-staining (color)
- lifetime
- phagocytic/ non-phagocytic


short (8-12 days)


-staining (color)
- lifetime
- phagocytic/ non-phagocytic


Short (hours to days)

What are the two classes of agranulocyte leukocytes called?
LYMPHOCYTES and monocytes
What are the two lymphocytes?
T cells and B cells

- lifetime
- phagocytic/ non-phagocytic

Long lifetime (days to years)

what is the characteristic shape of lymphocytes?
large nuclei with thin layer of cytoplasm.
What is the purpose of T cells where do they differentiate from?
T cells are also called killer t cells because they actively fight infections
What is the function of B-cells? where do they differentiate?
B cells produce antibodies and label antigens as invaders and signal for T cells to attack them.

They differentiate in the bone marrow rather than the thymus.
Why is it important to get sleep?
T cells are the best protector of cancer. And studies show sleepless night causes 30% reduction in T cells.
leukocytes- monocytes

- lifetime
- phagocytic/ non-phagocytic

live months (LONG)


Platelets/ Thrombocytes

-involved in
- size with respect to formed elements
-True cells?
- Movement
- life span
Clot formation

smallest of all formed elements

NO; only fragments of true cells (megakaryocyte fragments)

Ameoboid movement

Short (5-10 days)
What is a thrombus?

What is an embolus?
Thrombus- a clot in a blood vessel

Embolus- a moving thrombus.
What is hemopoiesis?
the process of forming blood cells whether it be RBC or leukocytes.
The making of RBC is called...
the making of leukocytes is called
What is so unique about blood stem cells?
They are undifferentiated and can become any blood cells that are required.
Site of hemopoiesis- Red marrow
the red marrow ACTIVELY generates blood cells in the epiphysis of bones.
Site of hemopoeisis- yellow marrow
the yellow marrow can produce formed elements in emergency situation. These cells would be created in the DIAPHYSIS.

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