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Anatomy Chapter 5 2


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3 parts of axial skeleton
skull, vertebral column, and body thorax
skull formed by 2 sets of bones:
cranium, facial bones
Frontal Bone: Location
forehead, bony projections under eyebrows, and superior part of each eye's orbit
Parietal Bones: Location
form most of the superior an dlateral walls of the cranium
Parietal Bones meet at the midline of hte skull at the __________
sagittal suture
The parietal bones form the __________________ where they meet the frontal bone
coronal suture
Temporal Bones: Location
lie inferior to the parietal bones
Temporal bones join the parietal bones at the ____________________
squamous suture
external acoustic meatus
a canal that leads to the eardrum and the middle ear
Styloid Process
sharp, needlelike projection, inferior to the external auditory meatus, neck muscles attach to it
zygomatic process
thin bridge of bone that joins iwth the cheekbone anteriorly
Mastoid Process
rough projection posterior and inferior to the external acoustic meatus, full of air cavities, provides an attachment site for neck muscles
Mastoid Sinuses
close to teh middle ear and easily become infected, mastoiditis
Jugular foramen
junction of occipital and temporal bones, allows passage of the jugular vein(largest vein in head) which drains the brain
internal acoustic meatus
transmits cranial nerves VII and VIII
varotid canal
anterior to the jugular foramen, internal carotid artery runs through which supplys blood to the brain
Occipital Bone: Location
most posterior bone of the cranium
Occipital bone joins the parietal bones anteriorly at the _____________
lamboid suture
The large opening in the base of the bone is the ___________
foramen magnum
the foramen magnum serves the funciton of?
allws teh spinal cord to connect with the brain
Spenoid Bone:Location
spans the width of the skull and forms part of the floor of the cranial cavity
Ethmoid Bone: Location
anterior to sphenoid
how many Bones compose teh face
the __________ fuse to form the upper jaw
maxillary bones
the maxillary bones have ____________________
paranasal sinuses
Paranasal sinuses: function
surround the nasal cavity and lighten the skull bones
Infections in the paranasal sinuses results in ________
the _________ is the largest and strongest bone of the face
the Hyoid bone is the only bone in the body that does not
articulate directly with any other bone
the hyoid bone is shaped like a ____________
the hyoid bone serves as a movable base for the _________
the hyoid bone serves as an attachment point for ________ that raise an dlower the larynx when we swallow and speak
neck muscles
the spine extends from teh ________ which it supports, to the _______ where it transmits the weight of the body to the lower limbs
skull, pelvis
the spine is formed from ____ irregular bones
the _______ runs through the central cavity of the vertebral column
spinal cord
before birth, the spine consists of 33 separate bones called _________ but 9 of these fuse to form the ________ and the _______ which form the inferior portion of the vertebral column
vertebrae, sacrum, coccyx
the 7 vertebrae of the neck are _______
cervical vertebrae
the next 12 vertebrae are the __________
thoracic vertebrae
the remaining 5 vertebrae supporting the lower back are the ________
lumbar vertebrae
the single vertebrae are separated by pads of flexible fibrocartilage called_______________
intervertebral discs
intervertebral discs: function
cushion the vertebrae and absorv shocks while allowing the spine flexibility
the cervical vertebrae are called for short_______
c1 to c7
the cervical vertebrae form the _____ region of the spine
the first 2 cervical vertebrae are the _____ and ______
atlas and axis
the joint at teh C1 vertebra allows you to ______
the C2 vertebra has the function of______
acting as a pivot for the rotation of the atlas above, rotate side to side
Thoracic Vertebrae also called ____
T1 to T12
The Thoracic Vertebrae are _____ than the cervical vertebrae
each side of thoracic vertebrae attaches to the heads of _________
Lumbar vertebrae also called
L1 to L5
Lumbar vertebrae are the sturdiest and largest of the vertebrae because
they carry most of the stress of the vertebral column
the sacrum is formed by the fusion of ___ vertebrae
the sacrum articulates superiorly with _____ & inferiorly it connects with the _______
L5 , coccyx
the coccyx is formed by the fusion of __ tiny, irregularly shaped vertebrae, it is the human_______
3-5, tailbone
The bony thorax is made up of the ______, ____, _____.
sternum, ribs, thoracic vertebrae
the thoracic cage functions to:
forms a protective cone-shaped cage of slender bones around the organs of the thoracic cavity
the sternum is a ____ bone formed by the fusion of three bones _______, ________, & ________
flat, naubrium, body, xiphoid process
the sternum is attached to the:
the first seven pairs of ribs
The 1st seven pairs of ribs are called _______ and attach directly to the sternum by cartilage
true ribs
the next 5 pairs of ribs are called _____ which attach either indirectly to the sternum or not at all
false ribs
the last 2 pairs of false ribs are also called ____ because they lack sternal attachments
floating ribs

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