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2. cells and functions


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Endergonic Reactions
1. Energy input required
a. product has more energy than starting substances
Exergonic Reactions
1. energy is released
a. products have less energy than starting substances
cells earn ATP in exergonic reactions
Electron Transfers
1. arrangement of enzymes, coenzymes, at cell membrane
Concentration Gradienst
1. means the number of molecules or ions in one region is different than the # in another region
2. when other forces are not there , the substance moves from a region where it is more concentration to one with less concentration "down gradient"
the net movement of like molecules or ions down a concentration gradient
Factors influencingenzyme activity
1. cofactors
a. coenzymes
b. metal ions
Transport PRoteins
1. span the lipid bulayer
2. change shape when they interact with a solute
4. play roles in active and passive transport
Passive transport
flow of soluted DOWn concentration gradient w. no energy input
Active transport
against concentration gradient with energy (ATP)
1. diffusion of water molecules across a semipermiable membrane
2. direction of net flow is determined by water concentration gradient
3. side w. most solute molecules has lowest water concentration
1. relative solute concentration of 2 fluids
a. hypertonic-having more solutes
b. isotonic-having same amount of solutes
c. hypotonic-having fewer solutes

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