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Cells and what they're made of


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Cytomembrane system
1. group of related organelles in which lipids are assembled and new polypeptide chains are modified
2. products are sorted and shipped to various destinations
Rough ER
1. Arranged into flattened sacs
2. ribosomes on surface give it a rough appearance
3. some polypeptide chains enter through rough ER and are modified
4. cells that specialize in secreting proteins have lots of Rough ER
Smooth ER
1. A series of interconnected tubules
2. no ribosomes on surface
3. lipids assembled inside tubules
4. smoot ER of liver enactivates wastes and drugs
5. sarcoplasmic reticulum of muscle is a specialized form
Golgi bodies
put finishing touches on proteins and lipids that arrive from ER
2. package finished material for shipment to final destinations
a. material arrives and leaves in vesciles
1. membranous sacs that move through the cytoplasm
a. lysosomes
b. peroxisomes
(both)---located in cytoplasm
1. important for energy (ATP) production in the cell
2. the powerhouse of the cell
3. important in cellular respiration
plant only---against edge of cytoplasm
1. site of photosynthesis in cell
1. provides shape and internal organization for the cell
Microtubules (tube--hollow)
(element of cytockeleton)
1. largest elements
a. composed of protien tubulin
2. arise from microtubule organizing centers (MTOCs)
3. polar and dynamic
a. involved in shape, motility, and cell division
(element of cytoskeleton)
1. thinnest cytockeletal elements
a. composed of protein actin
2. polar and dynamic
a. take part in movement formation and maintenances of cell shape
Accessory proteins
1. attach to tubulin and actin
2. motor proteins(movement)
3. crosslinking proteins (holds together)
Flagella & Cilia
1. structures for cell motility
2. 9+2 internal structure
Cell Wall
plant only---cytoplasm
1. rigid shell gives shape to cell
2. provides tugor pressure when cell fills with water
Cell to cell junctions
1. plants
a. plasmodesmata
2. animals
a. tight junctions
b. adhering junctions
c. gap junctions
animal cell junctions
1. archaebacteria and Eubacteria
a. DNA is NOTNOTNOT enclosed in nuculeus
b. generally the smallest simplest cells
c. no organelles

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