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Parasit exam II


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Large Strongyles
-Mature in large intestine
-Eggs are shed in pasture in feces
-Infective stage- 3 weeks
-Migration damage
-S. vulgaris, S. edentatus, S. equinus
S. vulgaris (disease caused by)
-Migration of L4 larva causes occlusion of blood supply and necrosis of the gut
-Feeding activities of L1 adults causes blood loss due to "bites" on mucosal surface of intestine
What makes up the platyhelminthes?
-Tubellaria (free living flatworms)
-Trematodes (flukes)
-Cestodes (tapes)
Cestoda- attributes
-Parasitize the small intestines of vertebrates (larva parasitize in/vertebrates)
-Adults are chain of proglottides, reproductive units
-Scolex (head) which attaches to hosts body with rostellum
-In definitive host, the bladder of the developing larval stage is digested away and scolex buds proglottids, each more mature than the one above it
IMH Stages (Cestoda)
1. Cystecercus- scolex & bladder
2. Strobilocercus- maturing, elongating, segmenting cystecercus in intermediate host
3. Coenurus- single bladder, many scolices with potential to become individual tapeworms
4. Hydatid- cyst with many scolices (multilocular, unilocular)
Hydatid cyst
-E granulosus
-single chambered, unilocular cyst with thick laminated outer later surrounded by a host derived fibrous tissue capsule
Alveolar cyst
-E multilocularis
-multilocular cyst; multiple thin walled vesicles not surroundedby a capsule; thus enabling it to metastesize to surrounding tissues much like a cancer
Cestoda morphology
-Osmoregulatory system
-Nervous system
-Musculoskeletal system
Taenia pisiformis
-Definitive host- canids
-Int. host- rabbits/rodents
-T. taeniaformis is feline tape
-up to 200cm
-Ova have starburst appearance, round, small, thick shell, hexacanth embryo
-1 genital pore, sluggish segments
Taenia Life Cycle
-Rabbit ingests egg
-Hatches in small intestine + burrows through to the liver
-Cystecercus develops 2-4 wks
-Canid eats rabbit + cystecercus; scolex attaches to small intestine wall and begins to bud proglottids
-Gravid proglottids detach and pass with feces
Dipylidium caninum
-Def. host- canids
-Int. host- flea
-up to 50 cm
-"cucumber seed" segments
-2 genital pores, actively motile segments
-Ova is egg capsule with many eggs inside, very large
Dipylidium Life cycle
-Canid ingests infected flea and attaches to the small intestine
-Segments can be seen in feces 3-4wks
Tapeworm Treatment/Prevention
-Praziquantel (DRONCIT)
-Praziquantel/Febantel (DRONTAL)
-Praziquantel/Febantel/Pyrantel Pamoate (DRONTAL PLUS)
-Epsiprantel (CESTEX)
-Fenbendazole (PANACUR) *Taenia only
-Niclosamide (YOMESAN, HUMAN ONLY)

-Prevent pets from ingesting int. host, prevent fleas
E. granulosus
-Def. host- canids
-IKnt. host- Sheep (ungulates)
-3-5 segments
-Gravid proglottids contain 5000 eggs
-Genital pore
-4 suckers
-Non retractable rostellum w/ 2x rows 32 hooks
E. multilocularis
-Def. host- canids, cats, pigs
-Int. host- rodents
-Accidental int host- humans
-Dangerous zoonotic
-3-5 segments
-Gravid proglottid contains 500 eggs
-Non retractable rostellum with 2x rows 28 hooks
Metacestode Stage (granulosus)
-contains thousands of tiny protoscolices
-E granulosus: single chambered, unilocular, thick laminated outer later surrounded by host derived fibrous tissue capsule
Metacestode Stage (multilocularis)
-contains thousands of tiny protoscolices
-multichambered, multilocular
-multiple thin walled vesicles without capsule
-able to spread throughout body like an aggressive cancer
Echinococcus Life Cycle
-Adults live in sm. intestine
-Intermediate host ingests ova which hatch and migrate tolungs and liver, forming a cyst (5+months)
-Def. host ingests IH, freeing cyst and releasing protoscolices into body
-Pass through stomach into sm. intestine where scolices attach + mature to adults
-Eggs produced in 28-49 days
Taenia ova vs. Echinococcus ova
-infective immediately
Definitive host vs. Intermediate host (Echinococcus)
-Definitive host/intermed. host with short life span (rodent) usu. does not get sick from parasite
-Int. host w/ long life span get very sick
Diagnosis/Symptoms of Echinococcus infection
-Purging (very dangerous)
-Often asymptomatic due to slow growth
-Pain, discomfort in upper abdominal, weakness, weight loss
-Symptoms may mimic those of liver cancer, cirrhosis of liver
Treatment/prevention of Echinococcus infection
-Do not feed animals raw viscera of ungulates, keep good hygiene when working with animals, do not allow pets to consume rodents, keep wildlife out of gardens, do not eat wild fruits, vegetables without carefully washing or cooking
-Flat, soft bodied hermaphroditic parasites
Fasciola hepatica
-Sheep liver fluke
-Def. host- sheep, cattle, people
-Int. host- snail
-Ova oval in shape with operculum on end (where larva exit)
-Adults 2-5cmx8-13mm
-Flat, oval shaped bodyw/ cephalic cone containing oral sucker
-Live in biliary ducts up to 10 yrs
F. hepatica Life Stages
2.Miracidium (bores into Int. host forms sporocyst)
3.Sporocyst (germinal cells--> balls; develop into redia in Int. host)
4.Redia (develops in Int host, germinal balls become cercaria)
5.Cercaria (leaves Int. host + attaches to plant + becomes metacercaria)
6.Metcercaria (infective to DEf. host, ingested and becomes marita in sm. intestine)
7.Marita (Def. host enter bile ducts and become adults)
8.Adult (Def host)
Acute fascioliasis
-Sheep, cattle
-Invade liver causing severe hepatitis and frequently death
-Rupture of liver, causing peritonitis and death
-Fever, eosinophilia (low ingestion of metacercaria)
Chronic fascioliasis
-All hosts, human
-Rarely fatal infection
-Malaise, fever, mild jaundice, anemia, eosinophilia, pain under right ribs (in humans)
-In humans, may become ectopic
Black disease
-Caused by F. hepatica
-Chlostridum oedematiens- bacterium proliferates in migratory lesions caused by marita and causes infection
-Transmissible by eating raw liver infested with F. hepatica
-Middle Eastern
-Acute throat irritation, pharyngitis + pharyngeal pain, coughing, sneezing, vomiting
F. hepatica Tx, Dx, Control
-Dx- presence of ova in feces (sedimentation)
- ELISA (rare, in humans)
-Albendazole (VALBAZEN)
Clurslon (CURATREM)
Clonorchis sinensis
-Chinese/oriental liver fluke
-Def host- anything that eats raw fish
-Int hosts- fish(2nd), snail (1st)
-10-25mm adults
-Bile ducts of liver
-Ova are tiny, passed in feces
-10-20 yrs
C. sinensis pathology, diagnosis
-Stenosis of bile ducts
-Liver/bile duct damage over long periods of time can result in death
-Diagnosis through examination of stool
Platynosomum fastosum
-Bile Duct/Gall bladder fluke of cats
-Def host- cats
-Int. host- snail, lizard, toad
-Asymptomatic to occuluded bile duct
-Tx: praziquantel
Dicrocoelium dendriticum
-Lancet liver fluke
-Def. host- sheep,cattle, goats, pigs, rarely humans; infected after ingestion of infected ants
-Int hosts- terrestrial snail
(1st), and (2nd)
-Similar pathology to Clonorchis
Paragonimus westermani
-Human lung fluke (westermani)
-Def. host- human; infected after ingestion of int. host
-Int host- (1st) snail, (2nd) crayfish, crab
-Can become ectopic
-Disabling but rarely fatal pulmonary paragonimiasis
Paragonimous kellicotti
-Animal lung fluke
-Def host- animal that ingests int. host
-Int. host- (1st) snail, (2nd) crab,crayfish
Nanophyetus salmincola
-Salmon Fever Fluke
-Def. host- canids, felids, raccoons, fox, bear, mink; infected after ingesting infected salmon
-Int. hosts- (1st) snails, (2nd) salmon
-Neorickettsia helminthoeca (Salmon poisoning) causes symptoms; produces hemmorhagic enteritis + lymph node enlargement
-Tx: Praziquantel, Fenbendazole
Schistosoma mansoni
-Schistosomes; Blood flukes; Schistosomiasis, Bilharziasis
*Only trem. with worm-like qualities*
-Blood vessels of Def. host (abdomen)
-2nd in importance of parasitic disesases behind malaria
-20-30 yrs
-Def. host- mammals (humans); transmissible through contact w/ water containing cercaria which penetrate the skin
-Int. host- snail
-Causes damage to bladder, intestine, liver; stunts children's growth; can be fatal
-Flagellates: 1.Mucosoflagellates(Giardia, Trichomonas)
2.Hemoflagellates(Trypanosoma, Leishmania)

1.Coccidians (Eimeria, Isopora, Toxoplasma gondii, Sarcocystis, Neospora caninum, Cryptosporidium)
2.Hemosporidians (Babesia canis, Cytauxzoon, Plasmodium)
-Host specific, causes disease in specific host only
-Presence of oocyst in feces does not diagnose, and sometimes does not require Tx
-**Diarrhea**, hemorrhaging
-Dx- signs, oocysts, Hx
-Can be asymptomatic
-No treatment may be recommended
-Amprolium (AMPROL), Sulfadimethoxine (ALBON), Metronidazole (FLAGYL)
Eimeria Life Cycle
-Farm animal coccidia
-Schizogony/Merogony (asexual repro. by fission; ingested by host, undergoes many developments; inside host body)
-Gametogony (sexual repro. by gametes; inside host's body; released through rupture of oocyst and passes with feces)
-Sporogony (asexual reproductions; outside host body)
-Def host- all mammals, reptiles, birds
-Fecal-oral transmission; food; waterborne
-Asymptomatic; anorexia, diarrhea, straining, dehydration, weight loss; in humans fever, nausea, abdominal pain, vomiting
-Can be fatal in immunocompromised patients
-Dx: ELISA, Zinc Sulfate fecal float
-Tylosin(TYLAN), Nitazoxanide, Azithromycin, Paromomycin
Trichomonoas vaginalis
-Trichmoniasis, trick, trich
-STD, trans. through soiled towels
-Asymptomatic; white discharge/itching (vaginitis), males are asymp. carriers
-Dx: stained vaginal smear
-Beavers are most common carriers
-Cysts passed in feces, contaminating water, food
-Sm. intestine
-Severe, chronic diarrhea, asymptomatic, dehydration
-Dx: ELISA, direct smear, fecal flotation zinc sulfate
-Tx: Metronidazole, Fenbendazole
-African sleeping sickness (Nagana)/Chagas (American)
-Tse tse fly/cone nosed bugs
-Local, hard, painful swelling, fever, chills, nausea, headache, irritability, splenomegaly; FATAL; also effects ungulates
-Chagas similar, but not usu. fatal
Trypanosoma equiperdum
-Trypanosomiasis, dourine
-STD of horses
-No Int. host
-Silver dollar-like plaques on skin; muscle weakness, emaciation, paresis, fever, death within 6-8wks
-Almost completely erradicated in US
-Infects vertebrates
-Int. host- sandfly
-Cutaneous leishmaniasis; may spread to liver + spleen causing visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar, dum-dum fever) or to mucous membranes of mouth causing mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (espundia, uta)
-Fatal if untreated
Entamoeba hystolitica
-Amebic dysentery; basic GI signs, hemorrhaging; abdominal pain, freq. stools containing blood
-Amebic meningeoencephalitis; sore throat, headache, fever, vomiting, confusion, death within 1 week; rare
Balantidium coli
-Pigs, rats, guinea pigs, humans, etc.
-Large, ciliated protozoan
-Transmissible (humans) through ingestion of infected feces contaminated food/water
-Lg. intestine
-Can become ectopic
-"Rat tail syndrome"
-Dogs infected when fed raw beef; pass in feces
-Cattle ingest oocysts from dog feces; causes emaciation, lameness, hypersalivation, loss of tail switch, anemia, abortion
-Babesia canis vogeli, B. gibsoni
-Cats, young dogs, Greyhounds(B. canis vogeli); Pitbulls (B. gibsoni)
-Bite of infected tick Rhipicephalis(canis); bite of infected dog (gibsoni)
-Depression, weakness, anorexia, anemia, discolored urine, icterus, fever, splenomegaly, lymphadenopathy
-Dx: can be seen in RBC, serology, Polymerease
Chain Reaction test,
-Tx: Imizole (IMIDOCARB PROPRIONATE); atovaquone + azithromycin
-Tick-borne (Dermacentor + Amblyomma)
-Felids (true def. host is bobcat)
-Usu. fatal in dom. cats in 2wks
-Fever, jaundice, anemia, pancytopenia
-Tx: same as Babesia; Clavamox, blood products, heparin
-Dx: Polymerease Chain Reaction test
-Causes malaria; 1-2 mil people die of each year
-Transmitted through mosquito bite
Toxoplasma gondii

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