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a set of steps that, if followed correctly will eventually solve the problem
mental representation of a group or category that shares similar characteristics (e.g., a river groups together the Nile, the Amazon, and the Mississippi because they share the common characteristic of being a large stream of water that empties into an o
preferring information that cofirms preexisting positions or beliefs, while ignoring or discounting contradictory evidence
confirmation bias
Narrowing down a list of alternatives to find a single correct answer (e.g. standard academic tests generally require this)
convergent thinking
thinking that produces more alternatives or ideas; a major element of creativity (e.g., finding as many uses as possible for a paper clip)
divergent thinking
tendency to think of an object functioning only in its usualy or customary way
functional fixedness
strategies, or simple rules, used in problem solving decision making that do not guarantee a solution but offer a likely shortcut to it
persisting in using problem-solving strategies that have worked in the past rather than trying new ones
mental set
smallest meaningful unit of language, formed from a combination of phonemes
smallest basic unit of speech or sound
meaning or the study of meaning, derived from words and word combinations
grammatical rules that specify how words and phrases should be arranged in a sentence to convey meaning
a measure of the consistency and stability of test scores when the test is readministered
establishment of the norms and uniform procedures for giving and scoring a test
ability of a test to measure what it was designed to measure
a condition in which a person with mental retardation exhibits exceptional skill or brilliance in some limited field
savant syndrome
a subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values, and expectations), and expressions (frowns, smiles, and running)
set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior, usually toward a goal
organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal
arousal theory
motivation begins with a physiologicall need (a lack or deficiency) that elicits a drive toward behavior that will satisfy the original need, once the need is met, a state of balance (homeostasis) is restored and motivation decreases
drive-reduction theory
maslow's theory that some motives (such as physiological and safety needs) must be met before going on to higher needs (such as belonging and self-actualization)
hierarchy of needs
a body's tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as constant internal temperature
motivation results from external stimuli that "pull" the organism in certain directions
incentive theory
fixed response patterns that are unlearned and found in almost all members of a species
arousal, behavior, and emotions occur simultaneously; in this view, all emotions are physiologically similar
cannon-bard theory
movements of the facial muscles produce or intensify emotional reactions
facial-feedback hypothesis
emotions result from physiological arousal and behavioral expression ("i feel sad because i'm crying"), in this view each emotion is physiologically distint
james-lange theory
emotions result from physical arousal and cognative labeling (or interpretation) of that arousal based on external cues
schachter's two-factor theory
Goleman's term for the ability to know and manage one's emotions, empathize with others, and maintain satisfying relationships
emotional intelligence
motivation based on obvious external rewards or threats of punishment
extrinsic motivation
motivation resulting from personal enjoyment of a task or activity
intrinsic motivation
trait theory of personality that includes opennness, concientiousness, extroversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
five-factor model
unconcious strategies used to distort reality and relieve anxiety and guilt
defence mechanisms
in freud's theory, the rational part of the psyche that deals with reality by controlling the id, while also satisfying the superego
according to freud, the source of instictual energy, which works on the pleasure principle and is concerned with immediate gratification
adler's idea that certain feelings develop from early childhood experiences of helplessness and incompetence
inferiority complex
period of conflict during the phallic stage when children are supposedly attracted to the opposite-sex parent and hostile toward the same sex parent
edipus (oedipus) complex
freud's term for thoughts, motives, or memories that can voluntarily be brought to mind
in freudian theory, five developmental periods (oral, anal, phalac, latency, and genital) during which particular kinds of pleasures must be gratified if personality development is to proceed normally
psychosexual stages
freud's first and most basic defence mechanism, which blocks unacceptable impulses from coming into awareness
in freud's theory, the part of the personality that incorporates parental and societal standards for morality
freud's term for thoughts, motives, and memories blocked from normal awareness
maslow's term for the inborn drive to develop all one's talents and capabilities
roger's term for all the information and beliefes individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior
self concept
roger's term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attached
unconditional positive regard
maslow's term for the inborn drive to develop all one's talets and capabilities
regers's term for all the information and beliefs individuals have about their own nature, qualities, and behavior
rogers's term for love and acceptance with no contingencies attatched
unconditional positive regard
A projective test that presents a set of 10 cards with symmetrical abstract patterns, known as inkblots, and asks respondents to describe what they "see" in the image' their responce is though to be projection of unconscious processes
rorschach inkblot test
learned predisposition to respond cognitively, affecively, and behaviourally to a particular object
an explanation for the cause of behaviors or events
a feeling of discomfort caused by a discrepancy between an attitude and a bhavior or between two competing attitudes
cognitive dissonance
misjudging the causes of others' behavior as due to internal (dispositional) causes rather than external (situational) ones
fundamental attribution error
taking credit for our successes and externalizing our failures
self-serving bias
strong and lasting attraction characterized by trust, caring, tolerance, and friendship
companionnate love
intence feeling of attraction to another within an erotic context and with future expectations
romantic love
actions designed to help others with no obvios benefit to the helper
changing behavior because of real or imagined group pressure
reduced self-conciousness, inhibition, and personal responsibility that sometimes occurs in a group, particularly when the members feel anonymous
the dilution (or diffusion) of personal responsibility for acting by spreading it among all other group member
diffusion of responsibility
a first, small request is used as a setup for later, larger requests
foot-in-the-door technique
blocking of a desired goal (frustration) creates anger that may lead to agression
frustration-agression hypothesis
cultural rule of behavior prescribing what is acceptable in a given situation
following direct commands, usually from an authority figure
people we conform to, or go along with, because we like and admirethem and want to be like them
reference groups

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