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Fertilization and Early Development up to (and including) Infertility and Assist


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What are the layers that surround the egg when it is ovulated?
- layer of follicle cells: cumulus
- zona plleda proteins
What are the functions of acrosome?
it releases enzymes and allows sperm passage through cumulus and zona pellucida
Give the roles of each of the hormones secreted by the placenta during pregnancy.
- hCG: maintains CL

-progesterone and estriol: maintains pregnancy/takes over functions of CL; breast growth

-relaxin: loosens connections b/w pelvic bones, prepares cervix
Definition: Cleavage
- makes more cells
- begins a day after fertilization
Definition: Gastrulation
- major cell movement (creates several layers --> organs)
Definition: Neurulation
- creates nerve tube (organizes body)
- first stop of development
Definition: Organogenesis
- cells form tissues and organs
- cell move, change shape, differentiate
Definition: Morula
The ball of cells which forms at about 3 – 4 days after insemination of the egg, resulting from the cleavage of the fertilized ovum.
colostrum vs mature milk
Colostrum = yellowish thick, first few days after bith. Low in fat and sugar but rich in proteins and antibodies.
List all five features examined in a newborn that are part of the APGAR score.
Heart rate
muscle tone
blood flow to skin
What is the most likely cause for triploidy?
What is the most likely cause for tetraploidy?
affertilized egg does not divide after first mitosis
What is the most likely cause for Turner’s syndrome?
non-disjunction in father
What is the most likely cause for Klinefelter’s syndrome?
non-disjunction in mother (egg with two x chromosome)
What is the most likely cause for XXY?
non-disjunction in father (sperm with 2 y chromosomes)
What factors contribute to SIDS?
peak at 3 months
may be due to failer of coordinating of breathing

risks: sleeping on stomach, trauma or drugs during birth, smoking in mother
Differentiate between monogenic and polygenic genetic disorders
Mono: shickle cell anemia, hemophilia, hereditary breast and ovarian cancer

polygenic (more than one gene): nueral tube defects, cleft lip, cleft plata, mental disorders
Give examples of biological agents that can cause birth defects and fetal loss.
Viruses: herpes, HIV, mealse

Bacteria: TB, syphilis, pneumonia

protoza: toxoplasmosis (in cat feces)
Give examples of chemicals that can cause birth defects and fetal loss.
therapeutic drugs (chemo, antidepress, aspirin, vitamins a & d




heavy metals (mercury)

pcs (from plastics)
What are the signs of fetal alcohol syndrome?
small head and brain
mental retadtion
"short nosed" face
Definition: IVF
fertilization of effs outside the body

rationale: femalie's uterine tubes/cervix are blocked (ovaries are normal)

female wishes to be pregnant w/ another womn's eff (can'tg produce own eggs / surrogacy)

sperm count is low
Describe how artificial insemination and in vitro fertilization are carried out. In which cases is each used?
m/f couple is infertile (one or both)
single parent/ gay
woman does not want to be pregnant

in vitro is use when another women has the eggs and gets pregnant
What produces oxytocin and what releases it?
Hypothalamus produces

Pit releases
What disorders are prevented by taking folic acid during pregnancy
Folic acid is a form of the B vitamin that aids in the regular cellular development and regeneration, and is especially crucial within the first weeks of your unborn baby’s development. It helps to insure proper formation of the brain and spinal cord, without which there is a higher chance of miscarriage, and a 1 in 1000 chance that the child will end up with a Neural Tube Disorder (NTD).
1950s-1960s it was a drug given for morning sickness that affected limb development
Hormone disruptors and effects on development
weak estrogen agonists or weak androgen antagosists (some pesticies) = affects to the development of genitalia in males
List the intrinsic causes of infertility in females and possible treatment
Failure to ovulate - treat with GnRH agonists and Clomid (estrogen antagonists)

Impaired transport (muscus to thick, blocked uterine tubes) - not always possible to treat

Failure to implant: provide hormones estrogen and progesteron
List the intrinsic causes of infertility in males and possible treatment
Coital impairment (inability to ejactulate / eretile dysfunction): surgery, drugs (viagra)

Semen quality: treat with heat, surgically correct ducts, gonadtropic treatment (LH FSH)
List the different extrinsic causes of infertility.
Recreational drugs (effects hormone levels due to duration, dosage, and timing)

Therapeutic drugs: (erectile dusfunction; cancer chemo = woman sterile maybe temp for males)

Environmental toxins (interfere with gonad functions)

How do ZIFT and GIFT differ?
ZIFT: an infertility treatment in which egg cells are removed from a woman's ovaries, and fertilized in the laboratory. The resulting zygote is placed into the fallopian tube

GIFT: is an infertility treatment in which eggs are removed from a woman's ovaries, and placed in one of the fallopian tubes, along with the man's sperm. This allows fertilization to take place inside the woman's body.

Both GIFT and ZIFT are most effectively used to artificially fertilize a woman with temporary or permanent blockages in her fallopian tubes, because they allow placement of gametes or a zygote past the blockage.
What is IUI?
semen can be injected directly into a woman's uterus to improve the chance of conception in a process called intrauterine insemination.
NonInvasive prenatal diagnosis

blood test of mother - detects neual tube and chromosome problems if high levels
Invasive prenatal diagnosis

after 14th weeks

needle inserted trhough adbdomen, uterus, amniotic sac
Chronic villi sampling (CVS)
Invasive prenatal diagnosis
after 10th week

fewer tests, through the cervix
Invasive prenatal diagnosis

blood taken from imbilical cord
Fetal biopsy
Invasive prenatal diagnosis

remove tissue from fetus

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