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Functions of the human blood
1. distribution of oxygen/carbon dioxide
2. distribution of nutrients
3. transporting of metabolic wastes
4. transportation of hormones
5. thermoregulation
6. maintenance of acid-base balance
7. maintenance of fluid volume
8. prevention of blood loss
9. immune responses
-fluid-matrix of the blood -carries bulk of carbon dioxide in the form of C02 or bicarbinate
- mostly responsible for transporting of metabolic wastes to kidneys, liver, lungs and skin.
-mostly water which has the ability to hold heat
-nutrients are transported by way of the plasma
-carries hormones that are secreted in the blood to their target cells
Maintenance of Acid-base balance
-pH buffers w/i the blood and plasma, help to keep pH stable.
-most of the buffers are plasma proteins helping to bring stability.
helps to adjust pH of blood, its an antacid.
Our bodies ability to prevent blood loss
- hemostasis (definition for bodies ability to prevent blood loss)
-platelets, plasma proteins, and calcium ions - all help to clotting of blood
what are some immunce factors found in the blood?
1. antibodies
2. pathogens
3. allergens
4. inflammation
Human blood composition
-comprised of connective tissue
- contains liquid matrix (plasma) which is material b/w and amongst the connective tissue.
Total blood volume (liters)
4-6 liters (average is 5)
Blood pH level
-7.35-7.45 (avg pH 7.4)
-7.4 is slightly alkaline or more basic than it is acidic
-when CO2 is retained in the body it converts to a weak acid
Specific Gravity
-measure as to the density of fluid.
-specific gravity of blood is 1.040- 1.070
blood viscosity
-property of a fluid whereby the fluid resists flow. Thicker fluids would have a higher viscosity.

Ex) Salt water compared to fresh water. Salt water has a higher viscosity bc it contains salt.
what two things is blood composed of?
1. blood plasma (55%)
2. formed elements (45%)
formed elements
-45.1+ percent of total blood volume
-contains red blood cells, WBCs, and platelets
-percent volume or measure of whole blood that would be comprised of red blood cells. AKA PCV (Packed cell volume)
- In 45.1% of (formed elements) 45% are red blood cells.
-red blood cells
-primary role is to transport oxygen
-contains hemoglobin, which carries oxygen
-most numerous cell, one the smallest
heme part of hemoglobin
iron containing, the part of hemoglobin that carries oxygen
globin part of hemoglobin
protein part, part that carries carbon dioxide.
features of erythrocytes
1. flexible
2. biconcave (indentions in them)
3. anucelate (no nucleus but started w/ one)
4. contain no mitochondria, so have a limited life span
5. contain blood antigens - markings such such as RH FACTORS.
Average # of red blood cells in female/male?
1. Female - 4.8 million RBCs/per cubic mm of blood (about the size of top of pokey pin)
2. Male- 5.4 million RBCs/per cubic mm of blood

*MEN HAVE MORE RBCs b/c THEY HAVE MORE MUSCLE!!!!!!!!!!!!! HAHHAHAHAHHAHAHAHHA, however females are better!
blood is without the normal # of rbcs
amount of hemoglobin in male/female (g)
(FEMALE): 12-16 g/100 mL Blood
(MALE): 14-16 g/100 mL blood
hemoglobin in process of carrying oxygen. (HEME)
when hemoglobin isnt carrying oxygen, but Co2 (GLOBIN)
the creation of erythrocytes in red blood cells
erythropoeitin (EPO)
a hormone involved with the formation of red blood cells. its target cells are stem cells w/i red marrow. It stimulates these cells to go under mitosis. It's produced by specialized cells w/i the kidneys.
depletion in the availability of oxygen, oxygen detectors respond when low on RBCs, more erythropoeitin would be released at this time.
Triggers the release of erythropoeitin (4 of them)
1. decrease inthe population of red blood cells (blood loss/disease)
2. decrease in availability of oxygen (carbon minoxide)
3. increased tissue demands for oxygen (muscle)
4. pregnancy
average life span of RBCS
120 days
where do rbcs originate
hemopoeitic (stem) cells or hemocytoblasts
will eventually become an erythrocyte. first cell in the stages of becoming an erythrocyte
the cell *right before becoming an erythrocyte* at this time it gets rid of its nucleus or is pretty much already gone. Indicators as to how well a person is creating Red blood cells
- found within part of (heme) in hemoglobin
molecules transports iron w/i blood
ferritin and hemosiderin
storage forms of iron
destruction of RBC
-LIVER, SPLEEN, AND RED MARROW contribute to the death of red blood cells
-macrophages help to elimate and clean the dying RBC by eating them.
Bile Pigments
contributes to the color of feces and bile. comes from the destruction of hemoglobin.
-biliverdin (green)
-bilirubin (red)
-white blood cells
- less than 1 percent of total blood volume
- 5,000 - 10,000 wbcs/per cubic mm of blood
- have a highly variable life span
some properties of leukocytes
1. adhesive
2. diapedeisis (emigration) - ability to work through walls of cappillaries
3. chemotaxis - can follow scent or track of bacteria, can follow chemical scents from wound sites
4. phagocytosis- destroy
any increase in the number of WBC population, could be a sign of infection, but is a normal response
decrease in number of wbcs, could be caused by viral infections

form of cancer of the blood forming tissue
-have distinct grains or granules within the cytoplasm
-another name is granular leukocytes
-arise from stem cells and myeloblasts
-contains neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils which are named for the way they take up blood stains.
-neutral, neither acidic nor basic
-makes up 60-70% of WBCs
-They are polymorphonuclear because they have many nucleus shapes.
-multilobed nucleus
-excellent at phagocytosis
-"first line of defense" especially for infections and burns
-makes up 2-4% of WBCs
-AKA acidophils
-involed in allergic responses
-helps fight parasitic worms
-has ability to fight auto immune response ( when immune system turns on itself)
-bilobe nucleus
enzyme produced and released during an allergic response that destroys histamine
-0.5-1.0% of WBCs
-important to inflammatory responses/allergic reactions
-are sometimes referred to
as mast cells***
-bilobe nucleus
mast cells
the name basophils are sometimes referred to as. They produce histamine (vasodilator), which helps to bring more blood into area, produce seratonin, and heparin (anticoagulant) which helps to keep blood flowing.
-non-granular leukocytes
-contain lymphocytes and monocytes
-3-8% of WBCs
-excellent at phagocytosis
-sometimes leave identity to become macrophages and are different cells
-arise from monoblasts
-largest wbcs
-have a kidney shaped nucleus
-20-25% of WBCs
-important to immune responses
-arise from lymphoblasts
-lymph gland, thymus gland
-2 categories of lymphocytes are B-cells, or T-cells***
-have a large spherical nucleus
-white blood cells capable of producing antibodies in response to specific antigens. When they start producing antibodies we refer to them as plasma cells.
-once activated they are known as plasma cells
derives name from its relationship to the thymus gland. has posessive antiviral properties that has the ability to fight off foreign tissue, fight off cancer cells, and infection.
-AKA platelets
-involved in hemostasis (stability of blood)
-have a lifespan of 5-10 days
-develop from megakaryoblasts which eventually forms into megakaryocytes
-in every 250,000-400,000/cubic mm of blood
what are the 5 cells that hemocytoblasts (hemopoeitic stem cells) can give rise to?
Plasma (liquid fraction) is how how much of the total blood volume?
waht are the 3 proteins in plasma
contributes to water balance by way of osmosis
majority of antibodies
important to the nature of blood vlotting
water makes up ___ percent of plasma volume
plasma without its clotting factors
the stopping of bleeding
goals of hemostasis
1. reduce blood flow to area that is bleeding
2. reduce/stop blood loss by reducing its flow
3. initiate the healing process
4. occurs in response to products of tissue damage/collagen and phospholipids and platelets
what are the solutes of the plasma
1. nutrients - carries to cells
2. metabolic wastes- carries away from cells
3. blood gases- carries into blood plasma
4. electrolytes- charged particles transported w/i plasma
5. hormones- secreted into blood stream by plasma
what are the 4 hemostatic mechanisms?
1. vascular spasm
2. formation of platelet plug
3. blood coagulation
4. clot retraction/tissue repair
vascular spasm
- comprised of vascular smooth muscle
- vasoconstriction is brought about when area is damaged which reduced blood flow into the damaged area
formation of platelet plug
-platelet adhesion- the stickinenss of platelets which is brought about by phospholipids and prostaglandins

-platelet aggregation- The clumping together of platelets in the blood. Platelet aggregation is part of the sequence of events leading to the formation of a thrombus (clot).
Blood coagulation(blood clotting)
-involve clotting factors and calcium ions
clotting factors
proteins needed for the formation of a blood clot
a circulating blood clot
-ogen ending meaning
can be converted into something else
-formation led to by extrinsic and intrinsic pathways
-extrinsic pathway is faster and only takes seconds while intrinsic pathway takes minutes and the need for it is not quite as numerous
-is an enzyme
-when is presence of calcium ions converts from prothrombin (K) to thrombin
-when is presence of calcium ions converts fibrinogen to fibrin
-the solid part of a blood clot
- a temporary piece of connective tissue which eventually have to get rid of
clot retraction
-AKA syneresis
-cells begin to pump fluid out of the clot making it more solid, and it begins to shrink
make fibers that are made out of protein, important to healing throughout the body
process of splitting up fibers. The conversion of plasminogen to plasmin (fibrinolysin) takes place which will digest the clot away. TPA (tissue plasmiogen activator) helps in this conversion.
the membrane surrounding the heart
fibrous pericardium
It is a dense connective tissue, protecting the heart, anchoring it to the surrounding walls, and preventing it from overfilling with blood.
parietal pericardium
The outer layer of the pericardium, which is a thin sac of tissue that surrounds the heart. Also the toughest layer
visceral pericardium
AKA the epicardium The inner layer of the pericardium, a conical sac of fibrous tissue that surrounds the heart and the roots of the great blood vessels.
middle layer of heart muscle
inner lining of the heart
pericardial cavity
cavity that contains the heart
pectinate muscles
prominent ridges of myocardium located on the inner surface of the right atrium
trabeculae carnae
are rounded or irregular muscular columns which project from the whole of the inner surface of the ventricle.
angina pectoris (myocardial ischemia)
recurring chest pain or discomfort that happens when some part of the heart does not receive enough blood.
myocardial infarction
heart attack
A form of arrhythmia often referred to as "an extra heartbeat".
slowers than normal heart rate
faster than normal heart rate
what 3 chemical inhibit an inflammatory response?
histamine- a powerful vasodilator
prostaglandins & kinins-often leads to our sensation of tenderness and pain in the inflammed area
4 steps involved in inflammatory response
1. vasodilation
2. increased permeability
3. phagocytic activity
4. tissue repair
caused by histamine which increases blood flow
increased permeability
-due to histamine gives rise to edema, or swelling.
are in an area of infection also int he blood to help clean up debris
in fluid in surrounding tissues wherever plasma is located. helps to keep free of infection
process where antibodies coat the surfaces of bacteria to make them be seen by WBCs
tissue complement
include cytotaxic proteins which help to ward off and kill bacteria. then these cytotaxic proteins must be killed themselves by phagocytes
phagocytic activity
brought about by neutrophils and macrophages
when wbcs hold onto linings of blood vessels to get where they need to be.
knowing where to go once outside of vessel
tissue repair
depends on severity of wound on amt of time takes to heal. Fibroblasts are very important to the final stages of healing
normal range of heart rate
pulmonary circulation
the flow of blood from right side of heart to the lungs and then back to the left side. Specifically the flow of deoxygenated blood for purpose of gas exchange. This happens by way of the pulmonary artery which is the only thing in the heart that carries deoxygenated blood.
systemic circulation
left part of heart. the flow of oxygenated blood from left side of the heart to body systems by way of Aorta. It drops off oxygen in exchange for C)2. Deoxygenated blood is flowed back to right side of heart by way of Superior/Inferior vena cava.
Name the chambers of the heart
1.Atria - (inflow) recieving chambers which recieve thing by way of the veins.
- Right side by way of Inferior/Superior Vena Cava
- Left side by way of the Pulmonary veins
2.Ventricles- (outflow) our pumping chambers
AV (atrioventricular) valves
-prevent back flow. Open/Close
-Tricuspid Valves/Bicuspid Valves
-1st of 2 hearts sounds due to AV valves
-Chordae Tendinae - projections only in AV valve
-Papillary Muscle - only in AV valve is columns of cardiac muscle
-CT and PM help to maintain closure of AV valves
Tricuspid Valves
right AV valve regulates the flow of blood. Has 3 leading edges or flaps that come together to close opening.
Bicuspid Valve
left side, AKA Mitral Valve, only has 2 leading edges, strongest
Semilunar valves
-prevents blood from flowing in the wrong direction
-name refers to the shape of the valves
-pulmonary semi-lunar valve
-aortic semilunar valve
pulomnary semilunar valver
at the base of the pulmonary artery or the exit of the right ventricle
aortic semilunar valve
at base of aorta and at the end of the left ventricle
L/R Coronary Arteries
The first blood vessels that come off ascending aorta. Branch to serve L/R side and Anterior/Posterior portions
Cardiac Veins
empties deoxygenated blood into the right atrium. The opening into right atrium from the cardiac veins is the coronary sinus.
Features of Myocardium
-striated muscle
-involuntary control
-intercalated discs (cells or cell membranes form together into a disc)
-contain desmosomes and gap junctions
-prolonged contractile period
-prolonged refractory period (helps to prevent tetany)
Electrical conductive system
the wiring within the heart. This is by way of cardiac muscle cells. They generate/conduct action potentials
sinoatrial (SA node)
-automatically depolarizes without the need to be told to do so
-"pacemaker" of heart
-cells located here typically incharge due to quickest deploarization rate
-establish a sinus rhythm (rate/pattern)
Internodal Atrial Pathways
specialized cardiac muscle cells that conduct
AV ( atrioventricular) node
responsible for revieving signals coming from pacemaker or SA node. Must delay transmittion of impulse (.1 sec) per heart beat. This allows ventricles more time to fill completely.
AV (atrioventricular) bundle
AKA "THe bundle of his" our only way from an atrial environment to a ventricular environment. or top to bottom
perkinje fibers
REAL DEFINITION: These fibers are specialized myocardial fibers that cause an electrical stimulus or impulse that enables the heart to contract in a coordinated fashion.

STAMATS: carry conduction to myofibers
what divides to form the perkinje fibers?
L/R bundle branches

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