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Native American Art and Arch. - Unit 4


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Basis to Lakota cosmology
-Nomadic lifestyle
-Merges with modern physics
-"Something that moves moves"
-taku skan skan
Western cosmology
-Entire universe in motion
1. from a primal rock that squeezed out its own blue blood
2. made water and dome of heavens
-4 winds (4 young brothers)
1. led to spatial and temporal ordering
-Sense of place is tied ideas about cosmic generation
1. but this view is an exception to the stereotype
-Most common is fringe clothing and feather bonnett
Dates of fringe clothing and feater bonnett
1700-1870 ce
How Lakota cosmology is like Iroquois and Hopi worldviews
1. mapped into spatial zones - sky, earth's surface, and realms beneath
2. 4 cardinal directions (4 winds)
3. axis - linked to Sun dance pole
4. sense of transfer of power between spiritual beings and humans
5. sense of emergence from earth (primal rock)
6. similar in ritual - humans will impersonate and personify spiritual forces
How Lakota cosmology is dislike Iroquois and Hopi worldviews
1. Lakota's view of the entire universe being in motion
2. Less emphasis on aspects of cosmology related to settled community life - ie: emphasis on moral order, good/bad in Iroquois Plains cosmology is overlooked more often that Pueblo and NE obscured by warrior image
Plains parallels with Eastern Woodlands
1. in lower Missouri and burial mounds
2. also had clay figurines and hopewell style pottery
3. also had some agriculture in the river valleys of the Plains
4. settlements of pit houses and sod roofs
Plains differences with the East
1. Never built platform mounds
2. Never had complex social hierarchies
2 elements of European life that transformed life on the Plains
Horse and guns
Date horses introduced to Plains
early 18th c (introduced by Spanish 200 yrs. earlier)
Date guns introduced to Plains
arrived with fur trade: 17th, 18th, and 19th c.
Revolution of the horse culture began
-began 1700
-Apache and Navajo acquired horses from Spanish and traded them wiht neighbors to the North
-hunting societies became more active
-enabled communities to grow in size
-competing for access to the herds
State of war
1860s adn 1870s
Rivals because of herd competition
1. Eastern Sioux vs. Ojibwa
2. Western Sioux vs. Crow
3. Cheyenne, Arapacho, Lakota (allies) vs. Earth-lodge dwellers of river valleys
Lewis and Clark exploration
early 19th c.
California Gold Rush
1849 - severe disruption of hunting patterns
Extinction of buffalo
Defeated the Plains people
- 1878-southern herd gone
- 1880/1881-northern herd gone
*Plains life lasted only about 150 years
Date of Spanish settlement in California
18th c.
Date of Europe-American migration
19th c.
How did contact with Europeans drastically affect Plains arts?
-Led to a diminution of arts for ceremony
-by mid-19th c. many arts were for exchange w/ whites
Great Plains - 1700s
Algonquian speakers came from north of the Great Lakes
1. Cheyenne
2. Arapaho
3. Blackfeet
followed by:
4. Plains Cree
5. Ojibwa
Great Plains - 1800s
Sioux moved westward across
Earth lodge dwellers
1. Pawnee, oto, osage, iowa (lower missouri)
2. arikara, mandan, hidatsa (upper missouri)
settled tribes
Mandan and Hidatsa
Nomadic tribes
Lakota and Crow - follow buffalo
Plains geography
Miss. river to Rocky Mts.
Southern Canada to Mexican border
Crow patterns
graphic - blue is common, outlined in white. bold, goemetric
Lakota patterns
Uses solid background color
Old man coyote
first to dress horses (Crow)
Lewis and Clark
Men's art
1. chronicling events
2. began with pictographs
3. narrative scenes on buffalo hide robes and shields
4. or images from visions as in the Great Lakes
5. Band histories (winter counts)
6. medicine wheels
Medicine wheels
-giant,round,solar symbols from boulders
-used for ceremonial centering
-may be 3,000 years old
-used to mark solstice
-Sun dance
-ritual pole - axis at center of the world
-dance enclosure - made of tree limbs and branches
-mortification in sacrificial rights
Sun Dance
-combines celebration,fulfillment of vows
-if you prove your worth through self-sacrifice, you receive strenfth and protection in battle
Pipe bundles
sacred pipes that sustained a whole tribe
-cared for by pipe keepers
Pipe keepers
holy men who had the bundle's rituals and would pass teh bundle and its ceremony to a younger member
Male roles more public in these cultures
Mandan, Kiowa, and Cheyenne
Years of increased contact
after civil war in 1860s
Increased contact in Plains
-forcible resettlement
-end of seasonal migration and warrior societies (men hardest hit)
-more dependent on whites due to extinction
reservation era - men's art
-cultural upheaval
-mens artistic traditions in rapid decline - no war shirts or sacred shields
-no paintings - a strong need to document traditional life
-pictoral histories in small books
-some scouts commis. to make drawings
Fort Marion
Cheyenne and Kiowa
-drawings were more detailed, perspective, landscape settings, showed daily lives of imprisonment
Arthur Amiotte
makes collages based on this tradition
reservation era - women's art
-flourished, enforced leisure - lots of beadwork (symbols of ethnicity, tradition)
-more lavish design
-non-traditional items such as suitcases, handbags
-intro of trade cloth, ribbon... (calico, men's tailored suits, huge variety of clothing styles, forced by loss of buffalo)
Sun dance banned
1883 to 'civilize' indians
Powwow began
July 4th celebration became common
Ghost movement
late 19th c.
-religious visions of prophet Wovoka, medicine man: live peacefully and world would revert, whites would disappear, included recognition of a messiah
Clothing of Sun dance and ghost movement
beautifully painted - belief in power against bullets
Wounded Knee
Dec. 1890:The end of an era, Lakota, 200 participants massacred
Persistence of vision
-Crow fair in Montana
-Lakota quillwork
-powwow as competitive dance
-some revival of sun dance
mixed race: scottish, english, french, with cree and ojibwa
Metis art
-skilled embroiderers
-instruction at missionary schools (floral imagery predominant)
-influences: combine Euro and indigenous modes - stylistic fusion
-eagerly acquired by traders, travellers, and indians
Big foot memorial ride
December 1990, South Dakota
-2 weeks to travel the 250 miles
-1000 years ago, roamed from Canada to Yellowstone river to Rocky mts
Sioux name
mistranslation of Ojibwa meaning "enemy"
Year gold miners invaded black hills
The hostiles
Lakota ancestors who refused to give up their way of life
Year government took black hills
Year of Fort Laramie Treaty
Wovoka's vision
1989 - there will be suffering for 7 generations, but after the 7th generation there will be rebirth. promised peace and happiness
-ghost dance movement
Year Lewis and Clark invaded plateau region
1st catch ceremony (plateau region)
ceremony when caught first salmon in the spring
gifts of marriage ceremony (plateau region)
woman's family gave salmon, man's family gave a horse
"I will fight no more forever"
Famous words of Chief Joseph, leader of Nez Perce tribe)
Oliver Howard
Found Howard University in D.C.- one of the first all black universities)
Plateau and California and great basin geography
400 miles wide - froom cascades in W. Washington, north to B.C., east to Idaho and MT, south to CA
crossroads region
some area of plateau region is more costal, some more plains
Great Basin
seperates California from the east
By this time the plateau region was a tourist commodity
19th c.
Plateau art
1.basketry - highly varied, coil cedar root-klikitat, tule reed mats-yakima
2.flat twined bags-yakima, nez perce, cayuse, umatilla-called corn husk bags. diff design on each side similar to plains geometric style, intro in plant fibre
far west tribe (6 villages N. of SF)- very proficient basketmakers
1.relies on rhythmic repetition
2.complex rotational geometry began to die in late 19th/early 20th c., but sold to outsiders. wealthy patrons emerged-offered annual support
4.basketry observed by drakes crew in 16th c.
Pomo feathered baskets
marked life stages
1. new mother received a red feather basket, then presented to mother-in-law
2. first bath in basket with shell beads
3. adolescents confined during first menstruation also received fine baskets that they would eat and drink from and keep throughout their life
4. gift exchange at marriage - man offered shelles, woman offered baskets
5. baskets cremated with body at death
6. individuals were judged by quality and quantities of their baskets
Washoe baskets
found in Great Basin and Western Nevada - hunter gatherer culture
discovery of gold, game supply reduced, men became ranch hands;women domesticss. lake tahoe a resort
Washoe bskts - commodity market
1895-1935, led to noted artists
Degikup design
tightly coiled, designs woven in, often an incurving rim
ie:Louisa Keyser
Cosmology of the North
1.belief in shamanistic transformation
2.perched on the shaman are small birds and mammals, on his head is a small spirit helper
3.essential bond b/w humans and spirit animals
1. a doctor wo diagnosed illnesses and prescribed for the sick
2. interpreted unknown forces that controlled food supply (a rainmaker mask, understand or affect natural/spiritual forces)
3. architect of the ritual dances that were the point of contact b/w people and spirits
Becoming a shaman
was a man/woman who had been atypical or psychotic in behavior as a child - channaled into role of a shaman, could also become a shaman later in life
Who saw spirits? (north cosmology)
anyone could see spirits, but shaman saw them clearly and more often
Where did a shaman work?
in dimly lit room while drumming and chanting, rattling could cover up his conversation with a spirit
Shaman tricks
1. Could survive burns, thrown bound by hand and foot into the sea, or speared through the stomach without a mark
2. Believed he could also transform himself into an animal - had power of collective beliefs b/c the performance usually grew out of sickness or poor hunting
Shaman masks
a way of interpreting spirits that the shaman contacted during trances. Were symbols of balance b/w all natural forces
Shaman clothing
wore carved amulets and distinctive clothing for public performances that testified to their powers and visionary experiences.
yup'ik artists
depicted the mystical journeys of shamans in carved and painted masks that have been greatly admired by many Western art lovers, especially during the 1930s and 40s
Alaskan eskimo houses
Built houses large enough to accommodate the entire populations of one or two villages to house the dances
eskimo maskmaking
1. after contact with the west, stopped making them for ceremonial purposes.
2. began carving them w/o eye holes for touristic decor
3. also stopped b/c of the inundation of white religious belief - the sacred artform depended on belief to continue
Subarctic zone
1.from Cook Inlet in West southern shores of Hudson and James bays
3.Boreal forest and TAIGA
4.short growing season
5.but rich w/ animals,plants,fish
Arctic zone
1.north of the tree line
2.humans as far north as northern greenland
3.herds of oxen and caribou on seals,walrus,wale
5.coastal populations
Sub-arctic popuation
populated about 12,000 years ago
Arctic population
populated about 4,000 years ago
Links to Siberia
eskimo tied to Chukchi and Evenk of NE Siberia
Arctic language
1. the eskimo - Aleut group
2. aleut and yup'ik as distinct branches
3. yup'ik also found on Chukchi peninsula in Siberia
Arctic Names
Alaska - Eskimo
Canada - Inuit
Sub-arctic languages
East: Crees are Algonquian
West: speak Athapaskan
Sub-arctic names
U.S. - athapaskan
Canada - Dene
1st contact with the Inuit
Sir Martin Frobisher, 1576
Russian settlement
in SW Alaska - 1741
Danes and Norwegians (north)
settled in Greenland, 18th c.
Jesuit missionaries (north)
Eastern Cree county, early 17th c.
Hudson's Bay trading posts (north)
Later in 17th c.
20th c. changes in North
Gold, minerals, oil
North post WWII (north)
1. permanent settlement
2. residential schools
3. disease
4. depenency
Klonkike gold rush (north)
1890 - accelerated contact
many souvenirs, developed more intricate and detailed engravings
women wove whale baleen baskets by this date (north)
crafts become more standardized (north)
1920s - dolls, bracelets
modern tech and consumerism began to have effects (north)
mid-20th c.
"Sons of the wind"
photo of 4 pillars
1992, Colleen Cutschall (lakota)
photo of man's war shirt
Lakota artists 1870
photo of 3 braded cradles
1990, Kiowa artists
Photo of tipi
1980s Kiowa artist
Black Leggings tipi of the Kiowa warrior society
photo of painted buffalo robe
Mandan artist 1800
detailed picture of interior of earthlodge
After karl bodmer, 1836-43
photo of horse effigy dance stick
Lakota, 1880s
"Between 2 worlds"
Wohaw (1855-1924), Kiowa
pencil and crayon drawing
black and white photo of twined bag
Nez Perce artist, 1910
photo of baskets
Louisa Keyser, Washoe (1850-1925)
photo of feathered basket
Mary Posh (pomo) dates 1905
picture of red war shield with man painted in middle
Arapoosh (sore belly), crow 1820
black and white photo of beaded horse collar
Crow artist, 1890-1900

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