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Stage between molts.

Period of time where insect is given exoskeleton (?)
process of producing new cuticle and shedding the old
incomplete metamorphosis
gradual change in each stage
immatures called nymphs
stages: egg, larva or nymph, adult
EX: mayflies, grasshoppers, true bugs, thrips
complete metamorphosis
morphology of immature stages differ radically from adult
greatest number of species have complete metamorphosis (egg, larva, pupa, adult)
EX: beetles, moths and butterflies, flies, bees, ants , wasps).
phytophagy or herbivory
-maceration of plant tissues or imbibing plant fluids and digesting these for nutrients
-all plant parts, both living and dead, are used by some insect
non-phytophagous insects
use plants indirectly for food
(attine ants harvest leaf bits and feed on the fungi that grows on them),(plants used as shelter by non-phytophagous insects)
organism that lives within the phytophagous insect to assist in breaking down plant tissue (phytophagy insects have limited ability to break down cellulose)
specific to one plant
EX: many leopidoptera
will use a few related or similar plants
EX: colorado potato beetle us solanum species or (potatoes, nightshades, and other species in the genus)
monarch butterflies use various asclepias species (milkweeds)
will use a wide variety of plants
EX: most orthoptera (hungry lotus will chew on wooden fence posts)
crickets will eat clothing
direct damage (insect-plant interaction)
from chewing, sucking, and gall inducing
1. cosmetic
2. reduction of yield
3. death
4. phytotoxenia
reaction to insect saliva
a. lesions, malformations, death (hopper burn)
b. remove insects and plants will recover
indirect damage (insect-plant interaction)
disease vectoring
1. viruses; lettuce mosaic virus
2. bacteria; pierce's disease in grape vines
3. fungi; dutch elm disease
zoophagous or carnivorous
feeding on other animals in order to obtain nutrients
(know the 8 classifications)
capture and consume living prey
live in close association with a single individual host without directly killing it
live in close association with a single individual host that is slowly consumed, resulting in death of the host
many hymentoptera and diptera
blood feeders (hematophagous)
feed on a series of hosts and live separately
many of these are significant disease vectors
an animal that lives commensally in the nest, burrow, or dwelling place of an animal of another species
social parasites
live at the expense of the colony
-use the nests and workforce of other species to raise their own offspring
-exploit the chemical communication by fooling hosts
-slave making
-cleptoparasites (cuckoo bee) larvae feed on stored provisions. mother or larva may kill host larva or egg
scavengers (saprophagous)
feed on waste, dropping, carcasses and exudates
largely or entirely dependent on fungi
a. feeding on fruit bodies, hyphae or spores
diseases that are naturally transmitted between humans and other vertebrate animals
transmission through contact
EX: rabies, anthrax, SARS
direct zoonosis
mechanical transimission where the agent is moved directly from the source to the recipient on external features. this is basically accidental and not an integral part of the life cycle of the pathogen
biologically vectored agents that use the vector as an important part of the life cycle. most commonly the transmission occurs through saliva or feces
4 termite ecological groups that occur globally
subterranean, dampwood, drywood, and mound builders
3 non-chemical control for termites
physical barriers, metal guards, heat, microwaves, electric shock, liquid nitrogen, biological control, better building practices, don't use wood
3 detection methods other than visual searches for termite infestations
dogs, microwaves, x-ray, infrared, methane gas detectors, carbon dioxide detectors, acoustic emission detectors)
sociality insects
cooperative interactions, aside from mating behavior, among individuals or the same species
solitary insects
not social in behavior. interact only for mating and male or female territoriality
social but not having all three of the characteristics of eusociality
"true sociality" characterized by:
1. co-operative care of young. offspring do not survive without action of parents and/or siblings
2. overlap of generations-parent and siblings care for juveniles and contribute to colony function
3. reproductive division of labor-one or few females lay all the eggs
EX: termites, ants, and honey bees
honey bee round dance
food nearby
honey bee waggie dance
conveys direction and distance
only with males. it is a sharp point on the apical abdominal segment that is jabbed in defense. can be painful but does not inject anything
neurotoxic (caused from venom)
paralysis of nervous system
hemorrhagic (caused from venom)
increase in the permeability of the blood capillaries
hemolytic (caused from venom)
destruction of red blood cells
structure of the sting (hymenoptera)
venom sac, venom pumps, lancets (wasps have smooth removable lancets while bees have barbed irremovable lancets), apparatus retracts inside the abdomen
-the stinging by bees and wasps is accompanied by a realease of alarm pheromone to call others to attack.
venom (a few components)
1. histamines
2. proteins
3. non-proteinaceous substances (acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, adrenaline, serotonin, many others)
chemial ecology
involves both produciton and reception of chemical signals. chemical signals mediate all aspects of insects' lives and their ecological interactions
chemicals involved in communication
chemical messages that induce a behavioral reaction or physiological process among individuals of the same species
chemical cues between individuals of different species that benefit the receiver
chemical cues between individuals of different species that benefit the emitter. typically these are defensive compounds
warning signals that the insect is toxic, bad tasting or can cause injury
convergence on a model pattern
Batesian Mimicry
tricking predators into thinking that they are unpalatable
Mullerian Mimicry
truly unpalatable species share a common signal
Zoonoses cycles 4 basic elements
1. the disease agent: the pathogen. typically viruses, bacteria, protozoa.
2. the vector: moves the agent from one host to another. Insects-fleas, hemipterans, diptera and non-insects mite and ticks
3. primary reservoir or host
4. permissive environment
wingless aphids
winged aphids
algor mortis
changes in body temperature after death
the cells that make up your body start to dissolve and melt when you die
livor mortis or lividity
settling of blood after death
rigor mortis
permanent contraction of skeletal muscle associated with death
examples of mosquito borne diseases
malaria, WNV, dengue, yellow fever
sentinel chicken testing
a method to monitor WNV.
advantages include:
1. chickens develop antibody response to WNV
2. not killed by WNV
3. regular samplings tell you when they contracted the disease
4. Chickens are not flying around so you know where they got the disease.
5. virus does poorly in chickens so they don't pass the virus to other mosquitoes
reproduction without male fertilization
aphid lifecycle
1. primary host-tree on which eggs pass the winter
2. apterae adult develops from the egg and gives live birth without mating (parthenogenesis)
3. several generations may follow this pattern of asexual development by apterous aphids
4. at some point, develop into winged adults (alates)
5. fly to secondary host such as grass
6. apterae and alates develop depending on crowding, temperature, and host plant condition
7. in autumn, short days and lower temperatures trigger the development of winged males and females
8. these females give live birth to an aphid (ovipara) that will mate and lay an over-wintering egg
plant defenses (against herbivory)
1. non-preference: not strongly attractive
2. antibiosis: reduce feeding, growth, reproductive success
3. tolerance: herbivory has little/no effect
modes of defense (against herbivory)
1. chemical: repellants, antifeedants, toxins, growth regulators, proteinase inhibitors
2. physical: tough cellulose covering
3. ecological:
a. phenology-timing of life cycle
b. spacial distribution-scattered or isolated plants, uniform stands, etc.
feeding on insects to use their nutrients

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