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Hutch's History Final Exam 2008

All definitions for History Final Exam; Part 1 of 2 (Vocabulary)

Terms

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Protestant Reformation
a religious movement of the 16th century that began as an attempt to reform the Roman Catholic Church and resulted in the creation of Protestant churches
Amerigo Vespucci
Italian navigator who explored South America, America named for him
The Calverts
started colony of Maryland, founded Maryland, the land to worship Catholicism (lord baltimore)
Leif Ericson
Viking sailor, explored coast of Newfoundland
Johnathan Edwards
Helped start great awakening and wrote sinners in the hands of an angry god
Mercantilism
an economic system (Europe in 18th C) to increase a nation's wealth by government regulation of all of the nation's commercial interests
"City Upon a Hill"
Boston
Sir Francis Drake
British Sea Dog connected with the defeat of the spanish armada
sedentary
not migratory; settled
coureurs de bois
typically french fur traders
John Calvin
Man who decided to teach of Lutherism and started Calvinism
theocracy
the belief in government by divine guidance
Juan Ponce de Leon
Went to Florida looking for fountain of youth
Samuel de Champlain
French explorer in Nova Scotia who established a settlement on the site of modern Quebec (1567-1635)
Sir Walter Raleigh
Sea dog connected with defeat of Spanish armada and friend of queen Elizabeth
adobe
sun-dried brick
Isaac Newton
English Scientist, Astronomer, and Mathematician
Buffer
Georgia, protected other colonies from spain
Quakers
English dissenters who broke from Church of England, preache a doctrine of pacificism, inner divinity, and social equity, under William Penn they founded Pennsylvania
Queen Elizabeth I
daughter of Henry VIII and a protestant who persecuted catholics
Jacques Marquette
In 1673 set out to explore mississippi
Pochahontas
Indian Princess, married John Rolfe which helped saved Jamestown
William Penn
Quaker who founded the colony of Pennslyvania
John Winthrop
puritan, minister and governor of massachusettes bay colony.
Prince Henry the Navigator
sailed to Africa and started Sagresm, a port for learning and trade
Leonardo da Vinci
one of the greatest figures of the Renisance, he was a great artist and great scientific thinker
William Bradford
Governor who replaced old governor and helped Plimoth colony survive
Peter Minuit
Dutch colonist who bought Manhattan from the Native Americans for the equivalent of $24 (1580-1638)
Magna Carta
Document stating British king could not raise taxes without consulting a council first
republic
a political system in which the supreme power lies in a body of citizens who can elect people to represent them
Tituba
Paris family slave and main contributor to salem witch trials
Anne Hutchinson
American colonist (born in England) who was banished from Boston for her religious views (1591-1643) (radical women) believed god would have spoken to her
John Wycliffe
Translated bible so all people could read it
Separatists
People who wanted to have a separate, or different church. Also known as Pilgrims.
John Rolfe
he save the colony, married Pocahontas and started the planting of a sweet tobacco in Jamestown
Henry Hudson
English navigator who sailed Hudson river
Johann Gutenburg
invented movable printing press
Galileo
Astronomer who invented telescope
Francisco Pizarro
Spanish conquerer of peru
Cash Crop
Crop sold for cash
Roger Williams
Puritan minister in Salem 1634; founded Rhode Island. He wanted church separate from the state
terrace gardening
the building of raised banks of earth on steep land for farming
Queen Isabella
Queen of spain who gave colombus the ships and sailors to sail to the new world
Henry the 8th
King of England who established the church of England
Vasco de Gama
Portugese navigator who sailed from Portugal to India
House of Burgesses
The first official legislative assembly in the Colonies
gentry
top class
James Oglethorpe
A reformer who created Georgia as a place where debtors could live
Jacques Cartier
traveled more than halfway up saint lawrence river
conquistador
conquerer- came over to the New world to get rich ( God, Gold, Glory)
Thomas Hooker
Founded Conneticut with strict limits on goverment
infidel
a person who does not acknowledge your God
land bridge
a bridge between two larger pieces of land formed by a small strip of land and is often temporary
Bartholomew Diaz
Portugese navigator who rounded cape of good hope but never made it to india
excommunication
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church
caravel
a swift, maneuverable sailing ship used for exploration by the spanish and the portuguese in the 1500s and 1600s.
Virginia Dare
First Child Born in the American Colonies
Boston Latin School
First real school in the united states
Mayflower Compact
this document established the first bases in the new world for written rights
sabbath
holy day of rest
Ferdinand Magellan
Portugese navigator who circumnavigated the globe
reservation
the act of keeping back or setting aside for some future occasion
Eric the Red
a viking who explored greenland
John Smith
helped save virginian colony by making colonists plant food if they wanted to plant tobacco
Charter
legal document giving certain rights to a people or company
polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Martin Frobisher
one of the heroes for the English against Spanish Armada
Nicolaus Copernicus
Believed that earth revolved around sun, not vice versa, he was excommunicated from the church
artifact
an object that was made in the past
Plimoth
Where the pilgrims had settled and landed on the Mayflower
Norsemen
members of any of the peoples of medieval Scandinavia (aka Vikings)
Christopher Columbus
Italian navigator for Spanish who discovered West Indies
Montezuma
Aztec emperor during spanish invasion
Mason & Dixon
two english Surveyors and surveyed the boundary line
Puritans
they wanted to purify the church
Hernando Cortes
Spanish conquerer of Mexico
primogeniture
right of inheritance belongs exclusively to the eldest son
Navigation Acts
Series of laws that regulated trade between england and colonies
maize
corn
slash and burn
a farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops
prejudice
A judgment or opinion formed without due examination of the facts.
Vikings
one of a seafaring Scandinavian people who raided the coasts of northern and western from the eighth through the tenth century.
Northwest Passage
a water route between the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans along the northern coast of North America
Charles I
King of England who disliked puritans and their ideas and had a few jailed
Martin Luther
he was an augustinian monk who sought to recognize the faults within the roman catholic church
King James I
Jamestown was named after - King after Queen Elizabeth I

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