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Types of Learning Chapter 7


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A relatively perminent change in behavior that occurs through experience
associative learning
in which a connection is made between 2 events.
Classical conditions
learning by which a neutral stimulus becoms associated with a meaningful stimulus and aquires the compacity to efflict a simular response
Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
A stimuls that produces a respose with out prior learning
Unconditioned response (UCR)
An unlearned response that is automatically elicited by the UCS
Conditioned stimulus (CS)
A previously neutral stimulus that eventually elicts the conditioned response after being associated with the unconditioned stimulus
Conditioned response (CR)
The learned response to the conditioned stimulus that occurs after the CS-UCS pairing
Aquisition(In classical conditioning)
The inital learning of the stimulus-response link, which involves a neutral response link, which involves a neutral stimula being assoxiated with a UCS and becoming a conditioned stimulus (CS) that elicits the CR.
Generalization (In classical conditioning)
The tendency of a new stimuls that is similar to the original stimuls to elicit a response that is similar to the conditioned response
Discrimination(In classical conditioning)
The process of learning to respond to certain stimuli and not to others
Extinction(in classical conditioning)
The weakening of the conditioned response in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus.
Spontaneous recovery
The process in classical conditioning by which a conditioned response can recur after a time delay without further conditioning
A classical condition procedure for wekening a CR by associationg the fear-provoking stimulus with a new response that is incompatible with the fear
Operant conditioning
Also called instrumental conditioning, a form of learning in which the consequences of behavior change the probability of the behaviors occurrence
Law of effect
Thorndikes concet that behaviors followed by positive outcomes are strangthened, whereas behaciors followed by negative outcomes are weakened.
the process of rewarding approximations of desired behavior
the process by which a stimulus or event strenghtens or increases the probability of an event that follows it
positive reinforcement
the frequency of a behavior increased because it is followed by a rewarding stimulus
negative reinforcement
the frequency of a behavior increases becuase it is followed by the removeal of an average aversive (unpleasant) stimulus.
Primary reinforcement
the use of reinforcers that are innately satisfying
discrimination (In operant conditioning)
the tendency to only respond to stimuli that signal whether a behavior will or not be reinforced
extinction (In operant conditioning)
A previously reinforced behavior is no longer reinforced, and there is a decreased tendency to perform the behavior
A consequence that decreased the likelihood of a behavior will occur
Positive punishment
A behavior decreases when it is followed by an unpleasant stimulus
Negative punishment
A behavior decreases when a positive stimulus is removed
Applied behavior analysis (behavior modification)
the application of operant conditioning principles to change human behavior
Observational learning
Also called imitation or modeling: learning that occurs when a person observes and imitates anothers behavior
latent learning
unreinforced learning the is no immediatley reflected in behavior
insight learning
a form of problem solving in which the organism developes a sudden insight or understanding og the problems solutions
instinctive drift
the tendency of animals to revery to instinctive behavior that interferes with learning
the species-specific biological presdisposition to lean in certain ways

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