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MED2042 WEEK 3 - HLSD (Cognitive Neuropsychological Development)


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What occurs in classical conditioning?
What occurs in operant or instrumental conditioning?
AR (accidental response)
Pigeon presses red bar

R (reinforcement)
Pigeon gets food

DR (Deliberate response)
Pigeon presses red bar
What is habituation?
loss of attention to stimulus
What is conditioning?
learning to associate one experience with another
Describe habituation, conditioning, imitation.
Habituation - loss of attention fo stimulus

Conditioning - learning to associate one experience with another

Infant memory for angles
Give an example of a primary circular reaction.
Baby sucks thumb --> baby enjoys sucking --> Baby sucks thumb again
Give an example of a secondary circular reaction.
Baby sees smiling face --> baby coos --> Baby sees smiling face again
Give an example of a tertiary circular reaction.
Baby steps on rubber duck -->
Duck squeaks --> Baby squeezes rubber duck --> Duck squeaks again
Describe the assessment of object permanence by giving 2 examples.
Example 1
Object in view between two cloths
Object is placed under right cloth
Cloths are transposed (object moves to left with cloth)
Infant still thinks object is on the left side

Example 2
Object is in experimenter's hand

Experimenter closes hand

...and puts hand under cloth

... removes hand, leaving object under cloth

child looks in experimenters hand

Obviously upset, child cries
What happens in the visual cliff experiment?
Baby is on shallow side with glass over pattern surface

Floor pattern seen through glass on deep side
Describe the development of grasp during the first year.
Palm grasp (4 months)

Muscle grasp (6 months)

Beginning thumb-forefinger grasp (8 months)

Advanced thumb-forefinger grasp (1 year)
Describe non organic failure to thrive (NOFT)
- poor weight gain
- insufficient nutrition
- deviant patterns of parent-child interaction during feeding
- not necessarily a manifestation of abusive/neglectful parenting but a predictor of subsequent abuse
What are risk factors to NOFT?
1. Dysfunctional parenting style
2. Parental depression
3. Marital conflict
What are the principles of preventative management in children at risk for NOFT?
1. Early diagnosis by surveillane of the infant population.
2. Assessment of the child's physical and pscyhological status, the parent-child relationship and the family context
3. Stabilization or reversal of the child's acute physical symptoms by physical and nutritional intervention
4. Addressing specific problems in the parent-child or family system that are maintaining NOFT and contributing to risk for emotional disorders
What are preventative interventions for 'At risk' families?
- Home intervention by trained workers (nurses)
- Regular visits (trusting relationship)
- Emotional support
- Practical guidance
- Understanding of developmental stage
What are a child's first words like?
Over extention
How does a child in the first two years of language development put words together (semantics)?
- two word sentences
- telegraphic speech
- over regularization
- development of questions (complexity)

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