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microbiology 10-23-06 bio234


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6 types of
Genetic Engineering of Theraputic Proteins, and their uses.
1) Tissue Plasminogen Activator (TPA); storkes
2) Human Insulin; diabetis
3) Human Growth Hormone (hGH); growth defects
4) Factor VIII; blooding clotting (hemophilias)
5) Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF); helps heal wounds
6) Hepatitis B vaccine; help /c fighting infection
explain Vector.
A "vehicle", such as a modified virus or DNA molecule, used to deliver genetic material into the body for gene therapy
explain Restiction enzymes.
Bacterial enzymes that cleave DNA at very specific locations
5 kingdom classification system
monera (bacteria), Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
7 Divisions of Monera.
1) Archaebacteria
2) Gram postitive
3) Mycoplasma
4) Cyanobacteria
5) spirochetes
6) Gram Negative
7) Rickettsias
describe Archaebacteria
ancient bacteria found in harch environments. ie: Yellowstone, or glaciers
describe Gram Positive bacteria
containing peptidoglycan
describe Mycoplasma
wall-less bacteria - no cell wall, multi shaped
describe Cyanobacteria
bacteria which photosynthesis
describe Spirochetes
they move via axial fillaments
describe Richettsias
obligate intracellular parasites- they require a living host (a living cell) to survive.
Bergey's manual of Systemic Bacteriology - what are it's divisions of Monera?
Archae, Mycoplasma, Gram Positive, and Gram Negative
7 terms of Sterilization and Disinfection
1) sterilization
2) disinfectant
3) antiseptic
4) degerm
5) santization
6) germicide
7) Bacteriostat
define: Sterilization
kills everything - including spores
define: Disinfectant
doesn't kill all organisms (doesn't kill spores)- works on inanimate objects
define: Antiseptic
Inhibits microbiotic growth- used on living tissue
define: Degerm
medical removal of microbes, use of alcohol (swabbing)
lowers numbers of microbes - high temps (dishwashing)
define: germicide
generic - kills microborganisms
define: bacteriostate
slows down growth of organisms - ie: refrigeration/freezing
3 ways to disinfectant/antiseptics
1) denature proteins
2) injure plasma membrane (alcohol; damages phospholipide bilayer)
3) damage DNA ( uv lights; Thymine dimer)
5 factors that influence microbial death
1) number of organisms
2) microbial characteristics
3) pH
4) time
5) organic matter
how does number of organisms effect influence of microbial death?
more organisms harder to kill off
how does microbial characterists effect influence of microbial death?
ie: mycobacteria - more lipids, compared to other bacteria, more resistant from drying out
ie: endospores - more difficult to kill off
ie: gram - or gram +, + usually easier to kill off, due to relience to cell wall
how does pH effect influence of microbial death?
heat /c pH, easier to kill off
how is time an influence of microbial death?
longer you expose organism disenfectents - more effective agent is on microbe
how does organic matter effect influence microbial death?
carbon source - food source
physical methods of disenfecting
heat and cold
3 ways to use heat as a disenfecting agent.
1) moist - autoclaves; /c high pressure you can achieve higher temps
2) dry - flame; less effective - longer time required in heat
3) pasteurization - heat up to 63C about 30 min (then cool down), takes care of most human pathogens

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