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ch 2,22,24,25


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a set of particles or interacting components considered to be distinct physical entity for the purpose of study
a mixture of gases the surround a planet, such as earth
the portion of the earth that is water
the mostly solid, rocky part of the Earth; extends from the center of the core to the surfac of the crust
the part of Earth where life exists; includes all of the living organisms on Earth
the layer of the atmosphere that lies between the troposphere and the mesosphere and in which temperature increases as altitude increases; contains the ozone layer
the coldest layer of the atmosphere, between the stratosphere and the thermosphere, in which temperature decreases as altitude increases
the upper most layer in the atmosphere, in which temperature increases as altitude increases; includes the ionosphere
Electromagnetic Spectrum
all of the frequencies or wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation
the fraction of solar radiation that is reflected off the surface of an object
Greenhouse Effect
the warming of the surface and lower atmosphere of Earth that occurs when carbon dioxide, water vapor, and other gases in the air absorb and reradiate infrared radiation
the transfer of engergy as heat through a material
the movement of matter due to differences in density that are caused by temperature variations; can result in the transfer of energy as heat
Coriolis Effect
the curving of the path of a moving object from an otherwise straight path due to Earth's rotation
Trade winds
prevailing winds that blow from east to west from 30° latitude to the equator in both hemispheres
prevailing winds the blow from west to east between 30° and 60° latitude in both hemispheres
Polar Easterlies
prevailing winds that blow from east to west between 60° and 90° latitude in both hemispheres
Jet Stream
a narrow band of strong winds the blow in the upper troposphere
Air Mass
a large body of air throughout which temperature and moisture content are similar
Cold Front
the front edge of a moving mass of cold air the pushes beneath a warmer air mass like a wedge
Warm Front
the front edge of advancing warm air mass that replaces colder air with warmer air
Stationary Front
a front of air massesthat moves either very slow or not at all
a gas molecule that is made up of three oxygen atoms
Occluded Front
a front that forms when a cold air mass overtakes a warm air mass and lifts the warm air mass off the ground and over the another air mass
Midlatitude Cyclone
an area of low pressure that is characterized by rotating wind that moves toward the rising air of the central low-pressure region
a usually brief, heavy storm that consists of rain, strong winds, lightning, and thunder
a severe storm that develops over tropical oceans and whose strong winds of more then 120km/h spiral in toward the intensely low-pressure storm center
an instrument that measures atmospheric pressure
an instrument used to measure wind speed
Wind Vane
an instrument used to determine direction of the wind
a package of instruments that is carried aloft by balloons to measure upper atmospheric conditions, including temperature, dew point, and wind velocity
Radio Detection and Ranging, a system that uses reflected radio waves to determine the velocity and location of objects
the average weather conditions in an area over a long period of time
Specific Heat
the quantity of heat required to raise a unit mass of homogeneous material 1k or 1°C in a specified way given constant pressure and volume
EL Nino
a periodtic occurrence in the eastern Pacific Ocean in which the surface-watr temperature becomes unusually warm
a destructive, rotating column of air that has very high wind speeds and that maybe visible as a funnel-shaped cloud
a seasonal wind that blows toward the land in the summer, bringing heavy rains,and that blows away from the land in the winter,bringing dry weather
Tropical Climate
a climate characterized by high temperatures and heavy precipitation during at least part of the year; typical of equatorial regions
Atmospheric pressure
the force per unit area that is exerted on a surface by the weight of the atmosphere
the lowest layer of the atmosphere, in which temperature drops at a constant rate as altitude increases; the part of the atmosphere where weather conditions exist
Middle-latitude Climate
a climate that has an average maximum temperature of 8°C in the coldest month and an average minimum temperature of 10°C in the warmest month
Polar Climate
a climate that is characterized by average temperatures that are near or below freezing; typical of polar regions
the climate of a small area
a scientist who gathers data to study and compare past and present climmates and to predict future climate change
Global Warming
a gradual increase in the average global temperature that is due to higher concentration of gases such as carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
an instrument that measures and indicates temperature

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