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Chapter 4 Organic Chemistry


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What is a chain reaction?
A reaction where the sequence of individual reactions repeat many times.
What is the initiation step?
First step; reaction which starts the chain reaction but which isn't the source of products.
What are the propagation steps?
Elementary steps that repeat over and over in a chain reaction.
What is the termination step?
The last step in chain reaction; the reaction halts the chain reaction.
What are van der Waals forces?
Intermolecular forces that DON'T involve ions: London dispersion, dipole-dipole and dipole-induced dipole interactions.
What is a dipole-dipole interaction?
Force of attraction between to polar molecules.
What is hydrogen bonding?
Specific type of dipole-dipole interaction where a positively charged hydrogen attached to an O, F or N is weakly attracted to a negatively charged atom on a separate molecule
What is bond dissociation energy?
The energy required to homolytically cleave a bond between to atoms.
What are the IUPAC rules for alcohol nomenclature?
1. Functional class names are derived by naming the alkyl groups and adding the word alcohol to the end.
2. Substitutive names are deeloped by indentifying the longest continuous chain that bears the hydroxyl group and replacing the ending with -ol.
3. Hydroxyl groups take precedence over alkyl groups and halogens when determining the direction to number.
4. The longest continuous chain must include the alcohol.
What are the IUPAC rules for alkyl halide nomenclature?
1. Functional class names are the longest carbon chain alkyl group with the halide (fluoride, chloride, bromide, iodide) after it.
2. The substitutive name treats the halides as substituents.
What are the factors that contribute to molecular polarity?
1. The sizes of the partial charges (difference in electronegativity).
2.The distance between the atoms in the molecule.
3. The polarizability of the unshared electrons.
What is polarity?
The measurable quantity of amount of charge * distance of charge separation ... measured in debyes (D)
What is polarizability?
The ability of atoms to shift electron density in response to a stimulus.
What physical properties of organic chemicals are dependent on polarity?
1. Solubility.
2. Hydrogen bonding.
What physical propertieis of organic chemicals are dependent on van der Waals forces?
1. boiling point.
2. melting point.

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