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Advanced Human Development


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Attachment Theory
-the tendency to seek closeness to another person and feel secure when that person is present.
-inborn system of the brain evolved to keep the child safe. Enables child to seek prox.'y to parent, seek them in distress as a safe haven, and internalize the rela'p as in internal model of a secure base.
-Attachments are formed from 0-3 years and are believed to shape all future relat'ps, shape ability to focus, be aware of our feelings and calm ourselves, shape our ability to rebound from harmful circumstances
attuned vs. mis-attuned
Harlow experiments
mnkeys clung to cloth doll, whether or not it provided food. Explored more when cloth doll was near.

Monkeys raised w/o contact with other monkeys showed abnormal behavior in social situations: either fearful or aggressive. Also abnormal sexual responses.
Child Attachments: secure, anxious ambivilant, avoidant insecure, disorganized

will explore freely when mom is present, will engage with strangers, will be upset when mom leaves, and happy at her return.

Parent is emotionally available, perceptive and responsive. Attuned
Anxious Ambivalent
is anxious of exploration and of strangers, even if mom is there. Child is extremely distressed at mom leaving, is ambivalent when she returns-seeking to be close but resentful.

Parent is inconsistently available, perceptive and responsive and intrusive.
Avoidant Insecure
will avoid or ignore the mother-showing little emotion when mom leaves or returns. Doesn't explore much regardless of who is there. Strangers are treated just like mom. Not much emotional range displayed regardless of who's present or not.

Parent is emotionally unavailable, imperceptive, unresponsive, and rejecting.

experience their caregivers are both frightened and frightening. Human interactions are erratic, simply disturbed. No style of coping.

Parent is frightening, disorienting, alarming and chaotic.
Adult attachments:
Secure: (same as baby secure)

Dismissing (is avoidant). may act emotionally distant, appear self centered, and unresponsive to needs of others)

Preoccupied or entangled. (ambivalent)may be anxious or insecure, available at one moment, rejecting the next)

Unresolved trauma or loss/disorganized. Difficulty regulating emotions, trouble in social communication, lack empathy, explosive rages, abuse, neglect
Strange Situation
Mary Ainsworth's study observing attachment relat'ps b/n mom and child. Child plays for 20 min while mom and strangers leave and enter. Situation varies in stressfulness and teh child's responses are observed.
Freud's view of attachment
-That behavior of people is determined by unconscious motivations, biological and instinctual drives and psychosexual events during the first 6 years of life.
-outlined five stages: oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital. Differences in satisfying the sexual urges at each stage will inevitably lead to differences in adult personalities. Proper resolution of the conflicts will lead the child to progress onto next stages, failure in this results in fixation. Failure results in personality and behavioral disorders.
Bowlby's views of attachment
to a degree, children have ambivalent feelings toward their parents and there is an internal struggle that goes with it. Allowing children to express themselves is very healthy.
Gunner's research
in stressful situations, children who have experienced a secure attachment to a caregiver are more adaptice and produce less cortisol. Adverse or traumatic events elevate the level of cortisol in the brain. Excessive and chronically high levels of cortisol make the brain vulnerable to process that detroy the brain cells responsible for thought and memory. Cortisol reduces the # of connections causing memory lapses, anxiety and inability to control emotional outbursts
Forty-four thieves
When a mother is angry irritable and critical, and unnecessarily interferes and frustrates the child, he will not only be angry and aggressive but greedy for affection and things that represent affection to them. i.e. sweets Result of early separations.
Baby's brain and breast-feeding
seems to contribute to rapid growth of brain weight. Increases myelin which allows them to send and receivee messages much faster and more clearly
baby's brain and talking to baby
research suggest link b/n verbal intelligence and the number of words a baby hears in conversation. Help them develop a sense of communication. They experience the sounds of language. It's critical for reinforcing the connections in their brains that allow them to percieve and produce the sounds of your language.
Caretaker should be aware of in toddlers..

Cognitive- can recall actions and events that occured hours or a day earlier. Learn from what they have seen others do.

Social-Emotional-poor at controlling impulses. It's important to indentify with the immature yet developing behaviors the tod uses to deal with her very strong emotions. Identify signs of frustration to intervene before they act.
Consists of primary instincts and is largely unconscious. Operates on pleasure principle. Is developed at birth. No morals.
Overactive Id-seek pleasures, criminals
governs, controls and regulates teh personality. the Reality Principle. Balances demands of my Id and Superego

Developes 6 to 8 months
the judicial branch of the personality; moral code. Strict, this is right, this wrong.

Develops b/n 4 to 6 years old
Erikson's 8 stages
1.) Infancy (0-1)
Trust vd. Mistrust.
2.) Toddler (1-2)
Autonomy bs Doubt {shame}
3.) Early childhood (2-6)
Initiative vs. Guilt
4.) Elementary & middle school ys. (6-12)
Competence vs. Inferiority
5.)Adolescence (12 to 18)
Identity vs. Role confusion
6.) Young Adulthood (19-40)
Intimacy vs. isolation
7.)Middle Adulthood (40-65)
Generativity vs. Stagnation
8.)Late Adulthood (65-death)
Integrity vs. despair important
Mahler's stages
1.) Normal Autistic Phase
2.) Normal symbiotic Phase
3.) Separation/Indiviuation
a. Hatching/Differentiation
b. Practicing
c. Rapprochment
4.) object constancy phase
!.) Sensorimotor (infancy) Cognitive development forcuses on motor and reflex actions. Leans about self and enviromment through sensation and movement.
-Pre-operational thought (1.5-7); main focus of development is language and using symbols to represent ideas and objects.
-Concrete operations (7-11) begins to process abstract concepts such as numbers and relationships but they need concrete examples to understand these concepts.
-Formal operations (12+): child reasons logically and analytically w/o requiring references to concrete applications.

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