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Organic Chemistry (L.G. Wade, Jr sixth edition) chapter 1


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Schrodinger N
Shell of electron orbital
Schrodinger L=0
s orbital
Schrodinger L=1
p orbital
Schrodinger L=2
d orbital
Schrodinger L=3
f orbital
Order of filling Schrodinger orbitals
1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d
Schrodinger m1
orbital in space (-1, 0 or 1)
loses electron
Gains e-
how strongly atttoms attract e-
Top right most electronegative, bottom left least
Ionic Bonds
Electroneg dif > 2.1

Mutual attraction of cation for several sourrounding anions or opposite

Atom forms cation by giving up one or more e- to atom(s) forming anion
Non-polar Covalent Bond
= electronegativities
Polar Covalent Bonds
Different electronegativity (significant dipoles)
Coordinate covalent bonds
Atom donates both e- for the shared pair and the other uses a vacant orbital for bonding

Covalent Bonds
Nonmentals usually form the,

Dif of electroneg <1.7

Atoms share one or more pairs or e-

Alpha bonds are symmetrical about axis of rotation
How many covalent bonds formed from C, H, N, P, O, S and hologens? What if they have +1 charge?
C-4, H-1 N-3, P-3, O-2, S-2, halogens-1

If +1 charge then they form one more bond
Lewis dot structures for representative (A) groups
Given by group number of periodic table
Lewis Dot Structures for covalent molecules
Determine correct # of Ve- for each atom
if - charge add extra e-, if + take one away

Write symbols and form single bonds between them

put other e-'s as lone pairs

check to see that each atom has octet
if not use dbl or triple bonds
2 or more lewis dot structures made by only moving electrong

Lower E structures are major
What Makes a Major Resonance Structure
All atoms have complete Octet

More bonds= more stability

No unnecessary seperation (causes high enery structures)

It is better to have a negative charge on a highly electronegative element like O than C

Dispersal of charge = higher stability
Formal Charge
FC= group # - nonbonding electrons - 1/2 shared electrons
Arrhenius Acid
Gives proton (H+)
Arrhenius Base
Gives up hydroxide
Arrhenius conjugates
Acids and bases neutralize each other to form conjugate base and acid
Bronsted-Lowry acid
gives up proton (H+)
Bronsted-Lowry Base
Accepts proton
Lewis Acid
Accepts electron pair to form covalent bond and have a positive charge (like H+ or hydronium) or have available vacant orbitals (BF3)
Lewis Base
Donates electron pair to form covalent bond and has a negative or neutral charge with lone pair(s) of electrons
Acid Strength
The more elctronegative an anion, the more acidic (most acidic bottom right, least top left)
Stability of Acid increases down a

Dispersal of charge over a larger atom stabilizes anions

The more anion on a central atom the more acidic

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