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Psychology 2000 notes


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awareness of various cognitive processes, such as sleeping, dreaming, concentrating, and making decisions
all thoughts, feelings, and perceptions that occur when we are awake and reasonably alert
waking consciousness
mental state that differs noticeable from normal waking consciousness
altered states of consciousness
not in conscious thoughts
see consciousness as first-person element of information processing; sense of self
cognitive psychologists
thought consciousness was a necessary element of human sociability
apparently effortless shifts in attention away from here-and-now into a private world of make believe
characterized by reduction in voluntary body movement and decreased awareness of surroundings
tiny cluster of neurons in hypothalamus; responds to level of proteins in body
human biological clock
continues to function in absence of external cues to day and night
characterized by REM/increased dreaming; aka paradoxical sleep
rapid eye movement sleep (REM)
alternate with REM stages during sleep cycle
non-REM sleep
a sleep disorder usually in stage 4; more common among children
sleepwalking and sleeptalking
sleepers suddenly sit up in bed, after screaming out in fear; usually don't remember dream the next morning
night terrors
inability to fall or remain asleep
breathing difficulty during night; feelings of exhaustion during the day; more common in males and heavy snorers
sudden nodding off during day and sudden loss of muscle tone following moments of emotional excitement; hereditary
vivid, visual and auditory experiences that occur primarily during REM periods of sleep
believed people permit themselves to express primitive desires that are relatively free of moral controls
believed dreams are a result of neurons misfiring; meaningless
Alan Hobson
chemicah substances that change moods, perceptions, mental functioning, or behavior
psychoactive drugs
slow down activity in CNS; feelings of calmness or drowsiness
America's #1 drug problem
depends on mental processes that are not directly observable
cognitive learning
learning not immediately reflected in a behavior change
latent learning
he conducted a rat study to slow latent learning
Edward Tolman
occurs rapidly as a result of understanding all elements of a problem
he conducted a chimp study to show insight
Wolfgang Kohler
emphasizes ability to learn by observng a model or receiving instructions, without first hand experience by learner
social learning theory
learning by observing other people's behavior
observational learning
he conducted the Bobo doll study to show how people imitate other people's behavior
Albert Bandura
internal record/representation of some point, event, or experience
short-lived memory process; almost a direct representation of actual sensory attributes of the stimulus
sensory memory
visual memory- very short
iconic memory
auditory memory- 1 to 2 seconds
echoic memory
temporarily stores sensory info. and decides whether to send it on to long-term memory; aka primary memory
short-term memory
idea that short term memory works with higher cognitive processes, such as learning, reasoning, and comprehension
working memory
came up with 3 subsystems about memory
Alan Badly
one subsystem that draws upon speech resources
phonological loop
acts like a buffer to hold verbal info.
phonological store
active mechanism that keeps info. alive in the phonological store
articulatory control process
system akin to an artist's sketchpad for stimuli that cannot be verbalized, such as spatial info.
visuospatial sketchpad
system responsible for supervisory attentional control and cognitive processing
central executive
stores info. for long periods of time; capacity is virtually limitless and its duration is relatively permanent
long term memory
mental models of knowledge; everything you know about a particular thing; tells you what to expect in the future
translating info. into neural codes
retaining neurally coded info.
recovering info. from memory storage
refers to concentrating/focusing mental resources
conscious repetition of info. over time; increases length of time that info. stays in memory
linking new info to previously stores material
deep processing
if we organize info into meaningful units as we encode it, we'll remember it better
events experienced in a specific time and place
episodic memories
facts and concepts not linked to a particular time
semantic memories
motor skills and habits
procedural memories
learned emotional responses to stimuli
emotional memories
aka declarative memory because we can put into words what we know; episodic and semantic memories
explicit memory
aka nondeclarative memory because we cant put them into words easily; procedural and emotional memories
implicit memory
U-shaped pattern of performance on a free recall task when recall is plotted as a function of word position
serial position effect
participants given 20 or more words in a row then asked to recall list
free recall task
relatively good recall of first items on list
primary effect
relatively good recall of last items on list
recency effect
continuous, nonstop practice
massed practice
practice spread over time with rest periods interspersed- more effective
distributed practice
a theory that forgetting is caused by physical changes in memory trace that weaken it or reduce amount of info stored in it
decay theory
a theory that forgetting is cuased by competition from other events that are encoded, making target memory more difficult to access
interference theory
prior events can render subsequently encoded memories more difficult to retrieve; old projects into future
proactive interference
following events can render previously encoded memories more difficult to retrieve; we forget more as time progresses
retroactive interference
theory that mental mechanisms make us forget unpleasant or painful facts
motivated forgetting theory
person tries to forget a painful memory; still aware that event occured
literally removes unpleasant memories from consciousness; person unaware that event ever occured
theory that perceived info is not successfully encoded by working memory for entry into long term memory
encoding failure theory
theory that forgetting occurs when correct retrieval cues are not produced to get at contents of memory
retrieval failure theory
subjects know that they know a word, can even describe or see it, but cannot correctly produce it at proper time
tip of the tongue phenomenon
occurs when skull makes a sudden collision with another object
traumatic brain injury
injury that does not penetrate brain
closed head injury
injury when object penetrates skull or skull is fractured
penetrating head injury
loss of memory as a result of brain injury or trauma
inability to remember ongoing events after incidence of trauma or onset of disease
anterograde amnesia
inability to remember events that occured before incidence of trauma or onset of disease
retrograde amnesia
group of symptoms that are caused by changes in brain function
most common form of dementia in older people; no cure
alzheimer's disease
organizing and chaping of info during encoding and retrieval that may cause memory errors and distortions
constructive process
aka source confusion or source misattribution; inability to recall source of info experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined
source amnesia
tendency to initially discount info from an unreliable source
sleeper effect
when eyewitnesses are later exposed to new and misleading info about an event, their recollections often become distorted
eyewitness testimony
believed she was satanically abused; believed she had more than 120 personalities; therapist performed exorcism
Nadean Cool
she recovered memories of sexual abuse; medical exam proved she was a virgin
Beth Rutherford
memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between encoding and retrieval contexts
context-dependent memory
memory that can be helped or hindered by similarities or differences between encoding and retrieval states
state-dependent memory
keep studying info even after you feel you know it
nonverbal mental representations of a sensory experience-can be very powerful
mental images
mental categories for classifying specific people, things, or events
a mental model containing the most typical features of a concept
he came up with the idea of prototype
believes we rely on degree of category membership
a flexible system of symbols that enables us to communicate our ideas, thoughts, and feelings
human language
ability to add new communications
basic sound units of a language that indicate changes in meaning
smallest meaningful units of speech-simple words, prefixes, suffixes
language rules that determine how sounds and words can be combined and used to communicate meaning within a language
rules for arranging words into grammatical phrases and sentences
criteria for assigning meaning to the morphemes in a language
particular words or phrases used to make up a sentence
surface structure
underlying meaning of a sentence
deep structure
came up with the idea of semantics
Noem Chomsky
the first stage of language development; 3 basic cries are hunger, anger, pain
prelinguistic stage
second stage of language development
cooing stage
vowel like sounds infants produce beginning around age 2-3 months
third stage of language development
babbling stage
vowel-consonant combinations beginning around the age of 4-6 months
fourth stage of language development; begins around age 1
linguistic stage
overly broad use of a word to include objects that do not fit word's meaning
applying rules of grammar to cases that are exceptions to rule
general capacity to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, and adapt to changes in environment
theory of intelligence; general intelligence factor, g; intelligence scores also included measurement error and s-specific factor related to test
Spearman's Two Factor Theory
theory of intelligence; aspects of intelligence at least partly independent of g; 7 group factors
Thurstone and Group Factors
ability to quickly generate/manipulate a large number of words with specific characteristics
word fluency
how quickly you can process visual info
perceptual speed
different aspects of g; fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence
R.B. Cattell and Fluid vs. Crystallized Intelligence
ability to see relationships-it reflects an inherent capacity to learn
fluid intelligence
your store of knowledge
crystallized intelligence
theory of intelligence; g is broken down into 2 major group factors- verbal educational and spatial motor
Vernon's Hierarchical Model
theory of intelligence; doesn't accept g; intelligence has 3 dimensions, conceive of as a cubic model; 180 diff. types of intelligence
Guilford's Structure of Intellect Model
operations- thinking, evaluation
x dimension
contents- visual, auditory, symbolic
y dimension
products- units, classes, relations
z dimension
theory of intelligence; dissatisfied with traditional IQ tests; came up with 8 diff. types to test IQ
Gardner's Theory of Multiple Intelligence
theory of intelligence; analytical intelligence, creative int, practical int
Sternberg's Triarchic Model
general learning and comprehension abilities
analytical intelligence
ability to select, encode, compare, and combine info in meaningful ways to create new insights, theories, and ideas
creative intelligence
adaptive behavior in the real world; ability to size up situations, achieve goals, and solve practical problems
practical intelligence
late 1800s; machines used to measure sensory thresholds/reaction times
Brass Instrument Era
father of mental testing; thought measures of sensorimotor activity indicate intelligence
Sir Francis Galton
first to use the term "mental test"
believed that sensorimotor scores were unrelated to academic achievement
he pointed out that there were many diff. levels of retardation
he showed that mentally handicapped could benefit from sensorimotor training
wanted to provide extensive education for all intelligent children and more practical schooling for tell intelligent children
Ministry of Public Instruction
he devised a test to sort outu children according to intelligence; constructed a set of questions that could be answered by most children at a given age
Alfred Binet
he made revisions to Binet's intelligence test
Lewis Terman of Stanford University
the name of the first test to use an IQ score
Stanford-Binet test
how is the IQ score calculated?
by dividing mental age by chronological age x 100
American Psychological Association appointed a committee headed by this person to come up with a simple way to classify soldiers
written test given to large groups; rough estimate of intelligence
army alpha
nonverbal tests for illiterates and those who don't speak english
alpha beta
what you know about a specific area
cumulative knowledge, skills, and abilities
thought to switch out questions of IQ tests; indifference of the indicator
differences in opportunity to become familiar with specific subject matter or processes required by test item
cultural bias
potentially deadly depressants
derived from, or resembling, seedpod of opium poppy
stimulate drugs that initially produce rushes of euphoria often followed by sudden crashes
speed, fire, crank, ice, or crystal
acts as both a stimulant and a hallucinogen
temperature spikes
brain to swell and press against skull
water intoxication
can permanently stop you from feeling joy
serotonin depletion
natural or synthetic drugs that cause shifts in perception or experience of imagery landscapes,settings, and beings
lysergic acid diethymide
mild hallucinogen-feelings of euphoria, a sense of well-being, and swings in mood
losing ability of time or making sentences
temporal disintegration
experience or practice that results in relatively permanent change in behavior
acquiring fairly specific patterns of behavior in presence of well-defined stimuli
aka Pavlovian conditioning-eesponse naturally elicted by 1 stimulus comes to be elicted by a different, formally neutral stimulus
classical conditioning
did an experiment with dogs to describe classical conditioning
invariably causes an organism to respond in a specific way Ex: dog food
unconditioned stimulus (UCS)
response that takes place whenever UCS occurs Ex: salivating
unconditioned response (UCR)
neutral stimulus paired with UCS; eventually produces desired response when presented alone ex: bell
conditioned stimulus (CS)
after conditioning, produced when CS is present ex: salivating
conditioned response (CR)

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