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Bio - Chapter 26 -Viruses


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protein sheath around the nucleic acid core of a virus. composed of one to a few different protein molecules repeated many times.
formed around capsid in animal proteins - made from proteins, lipids, and glycoproteins. contains proteins from host and viral genes.
host range
suitable cells for a particular virus
shape of virus that has rodlike or threadlike appearance
shape of virus that is spherical shape
structure with 20 equilateral triangular facets found in isometric viruses
viruses that infect bacteria
-some named as members of a "t" series
lytic cycle
when a virus kills the infected host cell in which is is replicating
- whiskers grab on to cell wall
-tail contracts and tail tube passes through base plate, piercing cell wall
-contents injected into host cytoplasm
virulent viruses
viruses that multiply within infected cells and eventually lyse (rupture) them.
ex: T series bacteriophages
nucleic acid of bacteriophages that is integrated into genome of infected host cell
integration of a cirus into a cellular genome
lysogenic cycle
reproductive cycle involving a period of genome integration
lysogenic viruses (or temperate viruses)
viruses that become stably integrated within the genome of their host cells
genetic alteration of a cell's genome by the introduction of foreign DNA
phage conversion
alteration caused when foreign DNA contributed by bacterial virus
an RNA virus that transribes its genes into DNA
ex: HIV
reverse transcriptase
enzyme that synthesizes a double strand of DNA complementary to the virus RNA, often making mistakes and so introducing new mutations
future of HIV treatment
combination drug therapy
vaccine therapy
blocking replication
disabling receptors
chemicals that inhibit HIB infection by binding to and blocking the CCR5 and CXCR4 coreceptors.
emerging viruses
viruses that originate in one organism and then pass to another and cause disease
single stranded RNA virus associated with rodents (specifically deermice in an outbreak in southwestern US, 1993)
Ebola virus
causes severe hemorrhagic fever
-natural host is still unknown
severe acute respirator syndrome (SARS)
comes from civets (weasel like mammal)from a species of coronavirus
TSEs (transmissible spongiform encephalopathies)
causes mad cow disease
comes from prions
proteinaceous infectious particle
no DNA or RNA
discovered by Alper and Griffith
tiny, naked molecules of RNA that are important infectious disease agents in plants
-resemble the sequence of introns within the rRNA genes cause destruction of chromosomal integrity.

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